Hong Kong is a magical place. Although the place is small, but it contains all kinds of things. Hong Kong is an international metropolis with nearly seven million people. However, in addition to the bustling metropolis and high-rise building, Hong Kong has a lot of natural scenery. We have natural mountains and vast coasts. Therefore, Hong Kong has a lot of wildlife. In addition, Hong Kong has an excellent geographical location. Also, Hong Kong government can manage resources properly.
According to Ian (2001), the definition of biodiversity means that all kinds of creatures have differences. These creatures play different roles in their lives. Different kinds of life live on the earth, play different roles with each other, and influence each other to balance in the earth. And Hong Kong is a place of biodiversity. Because we have thousands of square kilometers of coastline, mountains and country parks. Therefore, Hong Kong can accommodate a variety of wildlife. Because of the geographical advantage of Hong Kong, it has diverse biological species. Including 3000 kinds of flowering plants, over 2000 species of moths, 123 species of dragonflies and 230 species of butterflies. In addition, Hong Kong has more than 540 species of birds. Also, we can find some unique and precious species in Hong Kong. For example Liuixalus romeri, Manidae, Otter, Dibamus bogadeki etc. Some of them will only appear in Hong Kong. In addition, our Hong Kong sea area are also very rich in species. Has about 1000 species of fish and around 151 coral species. Next, I will explain one by one in different areas.
In the wood area, Hong Kong account for about one-fifth of the land area of Hong Kong. Which is an important habitat for wildlife. It can help prevent soil erosion in the catchment area. There are different types of forests in Hong Kong. Such as secondary forests, Fung Shui Wood and Afforestation. Among them, the area of Fung Shui Wood is small but very dense. There are many rare tree species and other creatures. It has a certain ecological value.
In the wetland area, wetland have about 5% of the land area of Hong Kong. These include categories such as natural and artificial. Although the wetland occupies very little land, but it can breed many different creatures. Mai Po Inner Deep Bay Ramsar Site is the most representative wetland in Hong Kong. Among them are famous for migratory birds and mangroves. And there live different kinds of birds. About 70% of the total number of Hong Kong. Also, there is an endangered creature- Platalea minor. This wetland also provides shelter for many types of local creatures. For example aquatic plants, insects, amphibians, fishes and mammals etc. So it is a important place.
In the coastal area, mangroves and mudflats at the estuary also play a big role. These two things help stabilize the sediment. That can provide food and shelter for countless marine and invertebrate creatures and allow them to reproduce. Such as fish, shrimp, crab, molluscs, seahorses, starfish and other marine life. According to Tam and Wong (2000),In addition to living things, mangroves can also breed a rich variety of animals and plants. On the other hand, the seabed in the northeast and east waters in deep has boulders and gravel. Stony corals can also be bred here. The stony coral species account for about two-thirds of Hong Kong’s total.
On land area, we can still see different kinds of land creatures. In recent decades, Hong Kong has developed very rapidly. The population density is also very high. Although there are very few places in Hong Kong, the creatures here are very diverse. Which is a very rare thing. On land, Hong Kong has a total of about 3300 kinds of vascular plants, 57 kinds of mammals, 236 kinds of butterflies and 123 kinds of dragonflies etc. Based on the above different regions in Hong Kong, we can see that Hong Kong is a biodiversified city.
First, I think one of the reasons is because of the geographical advantage. Hong Kong is between the equator and the tropic of cancer. It’s on the edge of the tropics. So our climate is called a subtropical climate. Globally, organisms in tropical regions are more abundant than those in temperate regions. So, this is the main reason to explain why Hong Kong is smaller than other cities but there are more creatures than other places. As mentioned above, Hong Kong’s climatic conditions, geographical location and geology affect each other. This will allow the creatures to settle down and allow them to forage. So, it will cause biodiversity in Hong Kong.
Second, I think another reason is that Hong Kong has a high carrying capacity. Hong Kong has different mountain and plains. Also, it has a continuous coast and countless islands. Furthermore, there is the Pearl River Estuary water in the west side and ocean water in the east side. There are so many good environments to breed more creatures. The mangrove as I mentioned above is a good example. Because the geographical environment of Hong Kong has certain advantages. These diverse environments can create different habitats and can even breed different creatures and plants.
Third, I think the government has done a good job in environmental protection. The government enacted a “Country Park Regulation” in 1976. Country park and specific areas are divided. Although this Ordinance cannot cover all ecological hot spots in Hong Kong, it is undeniable that the establishment of country parks and special areas can better protect the ecological environment. Different species and organisms are also protected by specific regulations. Such as Rhododendron simsii. On the other hand, I think the government’s education work very well. For example to promote Hong Kong’s biodiversity on TV, books or newspaper etc. The government also promoted to the public to protect nature.
I think Hong Kong is a wonderful place. We have different kinds of creatures. Some creatures may not have been discovered yet. I think it is not easy to make Hong Kong a biodiversity city. Because of the development of the city, Hong Kong’s natural landscape is gradually lost. Many creatures even must relocate or lose their lives because they cannot adapt to the rapidly developing city. Natural is an integral part of mankind. According to Brian (1992), if people want to reduce the loss of species, the best way is to maintain the integrity of ecosystem functions. We should strike a balance between developing cities and protecting nature. We have the responsibility and obligation to protect nature and be able to pass on to the next generation. Let the next generation know that even though Hong Kong is small, it is still a biodiversified city.
Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (2006), Mangrove, Retrieved from: https://www.afcd.gov.hk/english/conservation/con_mar/TKPlus/m_h_org/mangrove/mangrove.html
Brian.H (1992), Biodiversity and Ecological Redundancy, The Society for Conservation Biology, pp.20-29
Hong Kong Environment Bureau (2016), ??????????????, Retrieved from: https://www.afcd.gov.hk/tc_chi/conservation/Con_hkbsap/files/HKBSAP_CHI_2.pdf
Ian.R (2001), Biodiversity, definition of, The Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology, pp.378-390
N.F.Y Tam, Y.S Wong (2000), Spatial variation of heavy metals in surface sediments of Hong Kong mangrove swamps, Elsevier Science Ltd, pp.195-205
World Wildlife Fund (2013), Hong Kong: Biodiverse but not Bio-aware, Retrieved from: https://www.wwf.org.hk/en/news/?9440/Hong-Kong-Biodiverse-but-not-Bio-aware#
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