Abstract: The definition of the Sustainable Supply Chain Management varies from company to company in the corporate sphere. Additionally, other companies choose to focus on Green Supply Chain Management. This article analyzes the differences in key characteristics of these definitions in order to expand and develop this area of knowledge in the field. The author analyzes the data collected on these companies’s definitions, compares the outcomes and redefines the goal of SSCM to promote a more consistent and widely adopted definition of the goals of supply chain management. (Payman Ahi, Cory Searcy, 2018) Key Points from Article’s Literature Review: GCSM is more narrowly focused than SSCM. SSCM is a more broad, inclusive interpretation of GCSM with more of an emphasis on the triple bottom line. Coordinate focus and flow focus are more heavily emphasized in SSCM. Methodology Approach: Mixed Method Sample group and sampling method: Key Characteristics of definitions of GCSM or SSCM. Instrument for data collection: Charts and bar graphs. Data analysis: Word for word content analysis of definitions. Percentages of what definitions contained certain characteristics were measured. Findings: Perhaps one of the most significant analysis states that no definitions of SSCM or GSCM address value focused or efficiency focused models. Only three definitions included 4-5 characteristics. None of the findings included all 7 characteristics. Only 46% of definitions include a long term focus. Social issues are not mentioned in GSCM, only SSCM. Suggestions for Further Study and Limitations: Why companies choose to omit value and efficiency focused characteristics from their definitions of SSCM or GSCM. An interesting direction to further research is the effects of companies including value and efficiency focused characteristics in their definitions of SSCM have on the company’s revenue or overall supply chain management.
Article 2: Sustainable supply chains: An introduction Abstract: The authors of the article provide background on the current trends, opportunities and challenges of multidisciplinary sustainable supply chain. The topic is crucial and relevant because the concept of SSCM is relatively disparate. SSCM has significant potential influence over future government policies, production operations and new business model performance. Authors identify specific points along the supply where improvements must be made to support the optimal amount of stakeholders. (Jonathan D. Linton, Robert Klassen, Vaidyanathan Jayaraman, 2007) Key Points from Article’s Literature Review: Fusion of sustainability and supply chain is inherently a step up from the position of operations and the environment. Many other questions arise from the vague statement of what achieving sustainability throughout a supply chain entails. Authors then proceed to break down the supply chain and pinpoint developments and specific links that need revising for progress. Designers or innovators must work with the supply chain to achieve this progress because initial design ultimately influences the end life abilities of a product. There are many tradeoffs in this process that can increase costs in the short term due to uncertainty associated with recovery process. Sustainability ultimately opens a broader set of opportunities for improvement that require short term investment, but benefits a greater amount of stakeholders. Natural sciences, social sciences, policy and operations all work together and influence the ability for industry progress and innovation. Supply chain must be redeveloped to to consider by products, end of product life cycle and total cost standpoint. Methodology Approach: Mixed, but primarily qualitative Sample group and sampling method: There is not really a sample group. Research was concluded from other articles, an experiment was not run. Research had more of an exploratory trajectory. The only sample method pertains to the amount of articles on SSCM that increased from 1990-2005. Instrument for data collection: There was not really an instrument for data collection. Research was compiled according to trend or point in the supply that other authors investigated. Data analysis: Data analysis was able to conclude that the amount of articles published pertaining to SSCM increased from 1990-2005. Findings: Nothing significant. Suggestions for Further Study and Limitations: The study addresses that this is a foundation for further research and suggests case study research and other methods investigation to develop means of executing the changes described. There are many points at which the article provides points for further research and development woven throughout. There was not really a purpose to use mixed methods in this research. The graphs on increased publishing of literature on the subject does not add concrete value to the article.
Article 3: Case Study Analysing Potentials to Improve Material Efficiency in Manufacturing Supply Chains, Considering Circular Economy Aspects Abstract: Companies realize and value the benefits of increased material efficiency within the supply chain. Lack of sufficient solutions exist or require complete data sets or too much strain on firms limited resources. This article hypothesizes that even with insufficient consumption data, a basis for material efficiency improvement can be made along supply chains and circular economy activities play a significant role in material efficiency. Waste recovery and transportation activities are addressed. (Anja T. Braun, Peter Kleine-Moellhoff, Volker Reichenberger and Stephan Seiter, 2018) Key Points from Article’s Literature Review insufficient data sets with uncertain characteristics were analyzed does not cover electrical energy or thermal energy fuel supplies because overall cost of data was not available total material efficiency of each supply chain was determined before/after optimization as well as overall efficiency compared to similar supply chains Methodology Approach: Quantitative Sample group and sampling method: A company that produces surface coated decorative automative parts consisting mainly aluminum and wooden inlays that had been prior assed concerning material efficiency improvement. Calculations for material efficiency along supply chain improvements, investigations of possible optimization potentials and the impact of circular economies are assessed alongside simulations to account for uncertainties. Only material, not cost basis were analyzed Instrument for data collection: MS-Excel Spreadsheets, computer simulations, parameters spreadsheets, histograms, three different formulas Data analysis: Material amount, waste amount and material efficiency was at 59% prior and declined to 68% after. material demand was reduced by 13% and waste reduced by 31%. Findings: Supply chain cost structures of firms depend on prices of relevant inputs. As buyers become more efficient in their use of input materials, supplier demand will decrease. Even with uncertain estimated data consumption, an efficient basis for material input and output improvement with manufacturing companies can be created. Overall change relies on the the entire supply chain, not a single company. Focus should be placed on companies with largest potential for improvement and those who would benefit the greatest. Example: not water because the water supply chain is already efficient. Suggestions for Further Study and Limitations Can innovative business models with circular economy aspects increase efficiency? Do supply chain disruptions caused by technology, product and business design changes represent a significant tool of the reduction of material use? There is a need for further research of proper and effective business for direct circular economy purposes.
Article 4: Strategies on implementation of waste-to-energy (WTE) supply chain for circular economy system: a review Abstract: This article explores the benefits and barriers of Waste-To-Energy circular supply chain. Evaluations of industrial technology including combustion, gasification and aerobic digestion are made. Green Fuel pellets are also cited as an example of WTE methods. Plans and suggestions for government regulation and cooperation in enforcing WTE supply chains are explained and broken down. All barriers to entry including financial, technological, government and public opinion are considered. Solutions and steps to promote decrease in carbon footprint and production of clean energy are proposed. (Shu-Yuan Pan, Michael Alex Dub, I-TeHuang, I-HungLiu, E-EChang, Pen-Chi Chianga Author, 2015) Key Points from Article’s Literature Review: The government is instrumental to steering public opinion, prices and policies to support WTE systems. Biogas production is not profitable because of low yield. Communities with WTE infrastructure have higher recycling ratios than national average. CHP systems can have 80% efficiency. Government ownership of power plants prohibits efficiency. Private ownership is a more efficient method. Methodology Approach: Quantitative Sample group and sampling method: Various forms of WTE technology including combustion thermal treatments, gasification, aerobic co-digestion and CHP/CCHP. Instrument for data collection: Quantitative analysis and flow charts and Data analysis: Benefits of combustion include reduction waste volume, and destruction of hazardous materials. Benefits of gasification process include higher value of versatile products, availability of feedstock, high efficiency of gasification system and low costs for conversions of syngas.
Anaerobic co-digestion produces a consistently composed energy source with high levels of N,P,K beneficial for fertilizer. Low levels of biogas are produced form this process and is therefore unprofitable. Findings: An effective WTE supply chain includes command and control, economic instruments, information platforms, technical assistance, research and development, public-private ownership, international collaboration and environmental education. Government responsibility to adopt policies that promote clean energy are crucial to combat obstacles and steer public intellect towards green communities. Feed in Tariffs, elimination of conventional subsidies, taxes on pollution and more accurately priced energy are necessary to lower the price of renewable energy sources. Suggestions for Further Study and Limitations Explore the contradictory relationship between greening and growth to creative a cooperative and efficient society. Water for energy and energy for water solutions. A limit on this study could have been that regulation for waste treatment facilities that prohibit renewable energy plants to be close to communities were not thoroughly examined. Although the government is tampered with by petroleum lobbies, human health and safety regulation heavily factor into location of waste facilities. Article 5: Developing a national programme for textiles and clothing recovery Abstract: France is the only country that has a post consumer textile management system. This article analyzes how the French government implements an extended producer policy for the fashion and textiles industries. Challenges and triumphs of this initiative are reviewed and highlighted including the policy’s impact on France’s relationship with Africa and other solutions for fashion producers to adopt green design and recycling practices. Guidelines for all stakeholders are provided to continue efforts of textile diversion from landfill and promote circular fashion. (Mohammad Abdullatif Bukhari , Ruth Carrasco-Gallego, Eva Ponce-Cueto, 2018)
Key Points from Article’s Literature Review : EPR has created to a threefold increase of collection and recycling rates of clothing since 2006. Material recovery rate has met 90% and 50% of these materials can be directly reused. the reuse market of Asia and Africa have shrunk over the past few years and these markets are considering banning imported materials according to their impact on their industries and environments Methodology Approach: Mixed Methods or case research method Sample group and sampling method: annual reports of the French producer responsibility organization (PRO) of the textiles industry Instrument for data collection: bar charts, unstructured interviews, Graphs and pie charts Data analysis: America produces the most amount of textile landfill (kg per capita) compared to China, Hong Kong, EU and France. 13% annual increase in post consumer textile collection in France since introduction of policy Importation of textiles has decreased the size of the textile industry in Kenya by 300,000. 40% of post consumer textiles are exported to African countries. 70% of clothing donated globally ends up in African countries Findings: Recycling cuts raw material demands by 61% and promote energy, CO2 and water savings by 64%, 73% and 95%. Sorting and recycling forces are not financially stable due to fluctuating demand of reused textile.
Only 30-40% of collected materials can cover recycling costs. The reuse market of Asia and Africa has shrunk. These markets are considering banning imported materials due to their impact on their industries and environments. Although the PRO gives 50% discounts on tariffs the incentive is still to low to cover admin costs for declaration of units and certification of origin therefore making it not practical for companies to report that their clothing is made from recycled goods. Suggestions for Further Study and Limitations Can 50% of post-consumer textiles actually be directly reused? How can fiber blends be recycled and up cycled more efficiently? Quantitative assessments of the French EPR model More detailed analysis of the PRO’s role in facilitating the EPR model Qualitative analysis of the cost of recycling and sorting process
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