In this chapter, the methodology being used to conduct this research will be explained. This will lead to the theoretical framework, data collection and the method of data analysis.
University of Texas at Austin (2010) states that. “Research design is a plan outlining on how to gathered information for an assessment or evaluation which includes identifying the data gathering methods, the instruments to be used/created, and how the information will be organized and analyzed”. Research design used to structure the research, in order to show how the important parts of the research, such as the samples of groups and the method of assignment to work together to reach the research question (William, M.K., Trochim, 2006). A good research design can provide valid conclusions and suggestion from the research. (William, M.K., Trochim, 2006). https://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/design.php (University of Texas)https://www.utexas.edu/academic/diia/assessment/iar/glossary.php
The purpose of this research is to investigate the relationship between CFM and WCM, WCP, WC and CCC and ratio. A descriptive study was initially being undertaken in order to describe the variables of this research.
Gross Profit Net Profit Revenue (sales) Total Assets Total Liability Total Equity
Cash Conversion Cycle Working Capital Management Working Capital Policy Profitability Ratio Liquidity Ratio Figure 14: Research Model for the Research Study Figure 14 is the research model for this research study. The research model had been developed based on the objectives that had been stated down in the chapter 1of this research study. It is the outlines for the research study and it form up by six attributes, namely the independent variables and dependent variables, which is the guideline to conduct the research study. The independent variables in this research study are the six measurement of cash flow. They are gross profit, net profit, revenue, total assets, total liability and total equity. However the dependent variables in this research were CCC, WCP, WCM, profitability ratio and liquidity ratio. The six major features had enabled this research to study the importance of CFM in Tobacco Industry in Malaysia.
According to Saunders et al (2000), ‘there are two types of data; they are primary and secondary data.’ ‘Secondary data are those data that has already existed or being collected by other researchers for particular purposes and primary data is data that a researcher collects based on his or her own for a specific purpose’ (Cooper et al 2003). Saunders, M., Lewis, P. & Thornhill, A., 2000. Research Methods for Business Students. 2nd ed. Gosport: Pearson Education Limited. Cooper, D.R & Schindler, P.S., 2003. Business Research Methods. 8th ed. United States: McGraw-Hill Publication. However, the existed data has made the secondary data the most appropriate sources to be use in this research. Thus, the information needs for this research are accounting data. The secondary accounting data sources can be found in the file or report recorded and reported by accountants. Using secondary data has bringing the advantage of time saving, cheaper, faster and easily accessible while involve in data collection process (Colorado State University, 2010).Those studies employed data from financial statements of sample firms. (Colorado state university) https://writing.colostate.edu/guides/research/survey/com4c2a.cfm
A range of secondary data and information were utilised to obtain the information regarding the definition of cash flow, and the concept of CF in term of WC, planning and control, in order to carry out this research. The Information and data were obtained from various resources. Among the sources, reference books are the major and important sources to on the basic knowledge for Cash Flow (CF) concept. There are substantial numbers of books in the field of financial and management accounting on this topic and valuable literature can be combined by referring to those books as various accounting theorists have explored on this topic. Sources from Butterworth’s Public Library, Penang’s Public Library, and Library in College PTPL Penang are the major information in this research. However, references books do not provide sufficient information in relations to this research. There are some sources from academic journal, newspapers and magazines that provide some other information in this project. Furthermore, internet web sites are also the importance methods that use to locate the information or sources about the Cash flow Management (CFM) and the company annual report. Normally, internet information will employ World Wide Web because it will provide a useful source to obtain further information regarding to this project. Google is the main internet search engine that being used on this research study. Other than that, Google e-book, e-library of Anglia Ruskin University (ARU) were used to collect the information which written by the author from various country, especially from India and United Kingdom. 96 Using internet resource was unquestionable advantage, where it gives access to internet web sites which contain some valuable articles on this topic. Thus, Internet provides useful sources to collect additional information with regards on this project. In this research study, the data are mostly collected from the financial statements of listed companies on the Bursa Malaysia obtained from the Bursa Malaysia Listed Company website for annual reports 2004 to 2009. To focus on the CFM, profitability and liquidity, calculation of management of debtors, creditors, inventory and stock are selected directly from the CFS, balance sheet, and income statement.
The sample size used for this research study was the company in the Tobacco Industry in Malaysia listed on Bursa Malaysia. The sample size for the targeted participants is 80% of the Tobacco Industry in Malaysia. The targeted participants in this research study included two companies in Tobacco Industry in Malaysia, which are British American Tobacco Malaysia Berhad and JT International Malaysia Berhad from year 2004-2009. The samples are selected according to the following criteria: The companies must have completed data for all variables such as cash flow statements, income statements and balance sheets. The companies must have operated during the fiscal year ended December 31. The companies must be listed on the Bursa Malaysia.
All secondary data obtained from the different sources will be analysed in the order to gain a proper framework. All of these data will be analysed in detailed and summarised in readable and easily interpreted form for addressing the research question accordingly. Data which been collected from the financial annual report will be use to analysed by a few ratio analyses by using the profitability ratios, liquidity ratios, effectiveness of management policies, and cash flow ratios. The results obtained from the analysis are useful in providing answer to the research study. The ratio analyses that bad had been employed in this research study are stated in figure 15. Besides that, the Microsoft Excel also will be using by this research for the purpose to analysis the result of the ratio for these three companies.
Earning Capacity Ratio Gross Profit ratio Gross Profit Net sales Is the profit from the sale of product or service sufficient to cover the overheads generated in producing or providing that product or service? Net Profit Ratio Net Profit before tax Net Sales Is the return on the owner’s investment satisfactory or should alternatives be considered? Return of Equity Ratio Net Profit______ Average of owner equity How effective is the return on the company’s investment in these assets?
Short-term financial stability ratio Cash Ratio Cash_____ Total Assets How much cash in hand the company should hold to meet their short term operation needs? Current Ratio Current Assets___ Current Liabilities Is the company able to pay out the short term debts when required by creditors? Quick Ratio (Acid test ratio) Current Assets – Inventory Current Liabilities Can the company meet all its obligations immediately? Long-term financial stability (Solvency Ratio) Debt Ratio Total Liabilities___ Total Assets How financially secure is this company in long term period? Leverage ratio (Gearing ratio) Equity Ratio Total Owner Equity__ Total Assets To what extent the company depend on external finance (Debt/Borrowings)? How much long-term debt financing is being used by the company?
Activity ratios Turnover of Inventories ratio Cost of Goods Sold__ Average Inventory How frequent is the inventory being order to generate revenue Turnover of accounts receivable rate Account Receivable X 365 Net Credit Sales How effectively the company collect the cash from debtors to ensure steady cash flow? Any bad debts arise? Figure 15: Table of ratios Total 1022
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