Recommend Analyze Range of Plans and Budgets Roberta Finance Essay

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Those are available to Roberta to enable her to monitor and control all of her business activities. Also to discuss the external and internal factors that may influence the establishment of Roberta's plans and budgets. 2. Analyze the viability of an investment of an investment proposal: Will describe the proposal and the technique and will show that in-depth calculations of the viability of the investment plans available to her and also evaluate the impact of the proposals on the business and provide her with the best investment plan available for her at the end of this part. 3. Undertake research of two large public limited companies (PLC) and in that transport companies- with a view to understand the business better a performance audit of two companies have been taken and we also took the financial statements and other relevant information. We will also discuss the potential limitations of the analysis. Part 1 Roberta Kelly is currently going through the expansion period or we can say the business is growing rapidly and as the business is increasing the handling of the business is also getting tougher for Roberta. As she is the only one who has to stand there and solve all the problems that are coming up, though each of the business is having the manager but she fights with the problem herself. Whenever the business is in the growing period or in a starting period we actually plan things and we divide the work of the organizations into different departments.

And where in which we need to recruit people. The range of plan that Roberta can look up to are as follows - 1} to manage her financial data what she can do is she can create the departments within the organization and allocate the work accordingly to the department they belong. With the help of this the work would be distributed properly amongst the people and the organization and she can get the data of everything very quickly. In this case she need not take care of all the things. Like if she needs the information of the cash availability in the organization she can just ask it to the cash collection department and can see the available balance if she wants to see the sales of the company with in a period of time she can get that information from the sales department. Hence we will discuss all the departments that are necessary for her and the budgets that are necessary for Roberta to take care of her expanding business. A budget is an important tool of planning, controlling, motivation, and coordination. Budgets can help in Identifying the problems in business and promotes forward thinking by planning. A Distinction is made Between short-term planning and a long term planning, alternatively known as strategic or corporate Planning. There are number of purposes of budgeting, which include: 1. Planning 2. Coordination 3. Control 4. Communication 5. Resource Allocation 6. Motivation 7. Performance Evaluation


As we have noted, an organization's controller plays a vital role is designing and coordinating the budgeting process. A budget may have to go through many corrections and changes in it before it has the approval of the budget committee. Once the committee approves the budget the periodic report from all the different managers of the concern department will allow the committee to keep the eye on the company's progress and attaining budget targets. Successful budget implementation depends on two main factors - clear communication and the support of the top management. In general, budgets can be classified into two primary categories (Cohen, Robbins, Young,1994, p. 171): 1) Operating budgets: - Operating budgets consist of plans for all those activities that make up the normal operations of the firm. The main components of the firm's operating budget include sales, Production, inventory, materials, labor, overheads and R&D budgets. 2) Financial budgets: - Financial budgets are used to control the financial aspects of the business. In effect, these budgets reveal the influence of the operating budgets on the firm's financial position and earnings potential. They include a cash budget, capital expenditures budget and Performa balance sheet and income statement. Service revenue budgetO P E Service overhead budget Labour Budget Selling and administrative expense budgetR A T I N G Budgeted income statement& F I N Cash budget Budgeted balance sheetA N C I A Capital expenditure budgetL James Oscar mckinsey 1922 budgetory control With the help of the above figure we can clearly understand how an organization does depends on the budgets

It is indeed very necessary to allocate the funds appropriately to all the departments in the organization. The normal departments that an organization need or have are the sales department, purchase department, collection department, research and development, production department. And the budgets that are necessary for Roberta are the sales budget, production budget, capital expenditure budget, cash budget, administration budget, stock budget. The above mentioned are few budgets that are basically needed in any organization. The problem Roberta is facing in her organization is that the work is not being allocated properly and she has to handle each and every thing with oneself. And to solve this she has to create the departments and for them she has to design the budget and allocate funds accordingly. Let us now go ahead and see how these departments work - 1} sales department- this department takes care of the sales and with the help of that we can see whether the business is making profits and are the sales are increasing or decreasing and will help us to take the necessary steps. Ex- with the help of this department the information of the sales of the company it would be easy for Roberta to pull it up and she can have the record of the sales of the company quarterly, half-yearly, and yearly. This will help her to improve the performance of its company. 2} Accounts department- in this department all the transactions that have taken place will have an entry and this department maintains all the records of the cash inflows and outflows. Incase if there is some problem in the organization with the payment made or payment received we can just contact this department and we will get the relevant information.

In this the employees do not go to the Roberta and discuss this problem they can themselves cross check it with the accounts department. In this way Roberta is not being disturbed much with such small things. Ex- if Roberta has to see the balance sheet of the organization and check the performance of the organization. This department will provide her all the information. 3} Marketing department- this department takes cares of all the marketing plans that have being designed by the company for the particular year. This is one of the important departments as all the sales of the company depends directly or we can say it as indirectly on how we market our products and services. If we have marketed our products and services in a very good manner we can gain the goodwill and we can also increase our market share as the sales increase and the people are kept aware about the products that we offer to our customers and services which we render to our customers. This department's main job is to look onto our marketing strategies and how it is being affecting on our customers as well as our competitors. Ex- If the marketing strategy that has being approved and implemented to increase the performance of the company in the current year and is not performing well we can make it out with the help of this department and hence we can design another strategy and can implement it. We can also see the cost efficiency of the strategies and choose one amongst them which will give maximum outputs with minimum inputs.


The other thing that the Roberta can do is she can outsource the work to some other company where the other company takes care of all the transactions on her company's behalf and she can concentrate on her own business and try expanding it. She can pay the nominal amount to other company and in return they will handle its business. The main thing over here is to look for the company which is very well known in the market and has goodwill in the market.

Capital investment may be considered to be a part of capital budgeting process. It involves both the selection of long-term investments and financing of them. And these 4 different methods of capital investment will surely help Roberta in understanding and can further plan if she wants to take the project or not. Below mentioned are the 4 different types of method of capital investment. They are as follows 1. Payback period. 2. Accounting rate of return {ARR}. 3. Internal rate of return {IRR}. 4. Net present value {NPV}. These methods helps us to know whether our money has been invested properly and can get the return on investment {ROI} with the desired time and with the help of these methods we will also be able to know which type of project is beneficial for our company for instance if we have 2 or more than 2 projects to invest in .with the help of these investment methods we can check the profitability of our organization in the near future and can measure the threats or benefits if we have any in long run and in the short run as well .. Now I will go in little depth of all the four methods and explain it individually which make a clear picture about how these methods are different from one another and which one is best suitable for the particular organization. 1. Payback period - "the number of years it takes the cash inflows from a capital investment project to equal the cash outflows"

Payback period is measured in term of the net cash flows. We take the total cost of investment which we call it in a financial management language as capital. In this method our basic concern and the main information we need is to see the cash inflows and the cash out flows. In other words we see the amount that has been recovered in a particular year and how much more is yet to be recovered. If we have two or more than two projects we can measure when we can recover the amount invested in the project with the help of payback period and we can which of the two projects is beneficial of our organization and which one is suitable for us to invest our money into . THe earlier the payback period from the project or the business is supposed to be the better to invest into. And in the context of Roberta getting the proposal of overtaking its one of the suppliers business and the amount she is expected to invest in this project is 1300000 and as per the calculations done according to the payback period method she will start making profits after fourth year and before the start of sixth year that is somewhere in fifth year. In fifth year she will get back her money that she has invested in the project. So according to me if Roberta has been thinking about the future and she is more concern about running the business and investing the money into that project in respect of the long run basis then it is good enough. Because whenever a business is been started the person who starts the business or the organization who starts the business knows very well that they can't get the immediate profits and they plan their strategies of the business accordingly and which helps them to serve better over a period of time . As per the question the Roberta had been approached by Sunil Patel to sell his transport maintenance business and he asked Roberta if she is interested in an acquisition. As the Initial Cost is being given £1.3m and she is going to save £200,000 per annum and Sunil has provided a five-year budget i.e. Year 1 £80,000 Year 2 £90,000 Year 3 £100,000 Year 4 £110,000 Year 5 £120,000 Therefore as the Roberta is going to save £200,000 per annum Then the cash flow for the five years is

The accounting rate of return is very much similar to ratios. The main benefit of using the accounting rate of return is that is very easy to understand and to calculate as well. In ARR we take all the installments and then calculate the profits i.e. average annual profit. In this all the cash flows are used and taken into consideration. The ARR mainly focuses on profit. And higher the ARR the higher are the profits of the organizations. The main disadvantage of ARR according to me is that it doesn't take the time value of money. Because money value depreciates over a period of time it always needs the return of the investment continuously for example if I would have saved the money 1000 GBP in 2000 and now if I take it out and spend that 1000 GBP on purchasing something I would get only few things when compared to the money if I have spend it in the year 2000 so what is happening here the value of money id depreciating. And in ARR it also doesn't take much of time into consideration and if Roberta is ready to invest her money for a long period of time then it is useful for her. As in the case mentioned Roberta doesn't have any other projects as an option if she wanted to invest in. if she had any then we could have calculated the ARR of both the projects and suggested her with the best one between the two . In this project the average annual profit according to the calculations made is 40000 and the calculated ARR percentage is 3.0769 and which may increase over a period of time. A.R.R = Average Profit/Capital Employed x 100 Average profit = 200,000/5 = 40,000 Therefore, A.R.R = 40,000/13, 00,000 x 100 = 0.0307692x100 A.R.R = 3.0769% 3. Internal rate of return {IRR}- an alternative method of investment appraisal based on discounted net cash flow is known as internal rate of return. However, instead of discounting the expected net cash flows by a predetermined rate of return, the IRR method seeks to answer the following question: What rate of return would be required in order to ensure that the total NPV equals the total initial cost? In theory, a rate of return that was lower than the entity's required rate of return would be rejected. In practice, however, the IRR would only be one factor to be taken into account in deciding whether to go ahead with the project or not.

"The rate of return on an investment" seeks to determine the rate of return needed to ensure PV equals the initial cost: NPV = 0.

The internal rate of return basically gives you the rough idea of the return that we get on our investment. But it helps you compare the data and which is very helpful for the organization. With the help of IRR we can take effective decisions for our organization. In this case we use more than two discount rates to get the better picture for our returns on our investment. This is called trial and error method. In the case of Roberta investing in the project and the project is expected to be 1,300,000. If the company expects the rate of return of 5%, the project will not be accepted as its NPV is negative however the required rate of return is 4%, the project will be accepted, because the NPV is positive. The project will be profitable provided that the company does not require a rate of return in excess of 4%. In this we assumed another different percentage and then we are going to calculate, I am going to take 4% difference.

1,300,000 (32,400) I.R.R = +rate+ (+NPV/the two NPV's added together x range of rates) Therefore, I.R.R. = 4 + (32,400/32,400+5,200) x 1 = 4 + (32,400/37,600) x 1 = 4 + 0.861 x 1 I.R.R. = 4.861 4. Net present value {NPV} - the Net present value method recognizes that cash received today is preferable to cash receivable sometime in the future.

In NPV method we calculate the annual net cash flows expected to arise from the project. With the help of NPV method we will be in a position to know whether the business is going to make profits with the given figures and the given time or not. And if the NPV is positive we can accept the project and can go ahead and invest the money in that project and if the NPV is negative then it risk investing in that project as it will not give to profits in the given period and you might have to wait for some more time. And NPV also undertakes the time value into consideration which is very beneficial for the organization. And in the above project Roberta should not take this project according to the NPV method the NPV is negative and she has to wait for the some more time to cover her invest and start earning the profits.


12 Earnings Per Share Net profit(after tax and preference dividends)/no of ordinary shares 16.9 19.8 Profitability ratios: - Gross profit margin and net profit margin ratios are used to make sure that managers, owners, employees and potential investors know the profitability of the above mentioned two companies. According to the calculations net profit margin of British airways for 2009 is 4.46% and in 2008 it was 10.527%. As the economic recession that has hit many countries in the world UK is one of them and many business have being facing losses but it was not with the easy jet its net profit margin was not effected too much, in 2008 it was 4.6639% and in 2009 it was 2.051% . Both the companies have faced losses due to the economy slow down but easy jet managed to incur less losses than British airways. Liquidity ratios:- liquidity is the one of the key factor for any business. As the need of money may occur any time so the business owners should be in a position to get the money and should have the availability of money. The current ratio of British airways for 2009 is 0.566%and that of easy jet is 1.39% and the current ratio of British airways in 2008 it was 0.89% and that of easy jet is 1.54%. According to the percentages derived we can see that easy jet has more cash availability than British airways. Efficiency ratios: - The British airways debtor's turnover in 2009 was 21.51% but in 2008 it was 24.42% and the creditor's turnover in 2009 was 113.49% which is too high and that of easy jet the debtors turnover ratios was 33.09% and their creditors 102.74%. If we make the comparison of the ratios of easy jet and British airways the ratios of easy jet are very good. Gearing ratios: - The gearing ratios for British airways were 2.73% in 2009 and in 2008 it was 1.482%. And for easy jet it was 0.997 and 0.709. According to the ratios the British airways is highly geared and it would very difficult for them to borrow money from the potential market. And for the easy jet it is very good because they still have people and institutions in the market to borrow money from. Investment performance ratios: - The earning per share ratio of British airways in 2009 was 32.6 per share and that of easy jet shares are 16.9 per share. The earnings per share ratio of British airways is good. But after the hit of economic slowdown the British airways were struck badly because the earning per share ratio for them in 2008 was 61.9 per share and that of easy jet shares it 19.8 per share . Hence the easy jet didn't got struck too badly in the economic slowdown and have managed to incur less losses.


Looking at the above profitability shets we can say that easy jets performance is better than the British Airways. Easy jet has a safer capital structure than British Airways. Both to creditors and the debtors it has a strong debt paying ability and low debt risk in the long run. British Airways can improve its ratio by reducing its long term borrowing. However, we should also be aware of the limitations of the ratio, such as price changing, window dressing, lack of qualitative information, etc and make adjustments necessary.


From the above assignment of financial management given by Corina Pentland i have learned how to analyze the company's profitability and also how to use the accounting tools and techniques to analyze the profitable project suitable for the particular organization. It has being a wonderful experience to read various books of financial management to complete this assignment and have learned many things about accounting which i was not aware of.

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Recommend Analyze Range Of Plans And Budgets Roberta Finance Essay. (2017, Jun 26). Retrieved July 19, 2024 , from

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