For the longest time, there has been an ideology developed by researchers that stipulates that the personality of an individual is dependent on both genetic and environmental influences. There is consistent research that has been conducted overtime on the behavior of human beings creating a running theme with the consensus that personality traits can be shaped in a certain way. Leadership is one of the personality aspects that has been researched to recognize those who have or lack the ability. Personality traits have a huge impact on both perfect leadership and team outcomes. Skills, relationships, and roles fall under characteristic adaptations in humans which are manifested as a result of the interplay between the changing social environment and the genetic personality traits. There is a certain assumption that balance exists between nature and nurture as well as the beauty of each individual nature. There is a connection between good leadership and personality traits and that natural qualities are fundamental to leadership. This paper discusses in detail the impact of nature and nurture personality traits on perfect leadership and team outcomes.
The approach of leadership from a trait-centered view has been expanded and made more flexible by studies (Nye, 2009). Traits have come to be considered in the context of consistency in personality rather than characteristics derived from inheritance. Genetic research is largely focused on the developmental patterns, behaviors and the connection to the genetic difference. They also consider the influence of the environment on the unique traits of individuals. Developmental change is based on individual genes and the environment has the ability to interfere or alter the genes. Genetic predispositions in humans to a large extent can be switched or not by the influence of nurture. There are five basic factors that make up personality traits which include openness, dependability, extraversion, neuroticism, and agreeableness. These factors have been termed by many researchers as the big-five personality factors (Fleenor, 2006). Neuroticism, for example, refers to the level of insecurity, depression, vulnerability and hostility that a person can exhibit in different situations. On the other hand, openness to experience is the level of curiosity, insightfulness or creativity that creates the susceptibility to environmental influence. Agreeableness is the ability to be nurtured or conformed to existing and developing systems in the society while dependability is the tendency to be organized or being thorough (Fleenor, 2006). Extraversion is exhibited through characteristics such as assertiveness, and sociability in a person. Research has shown that effective leadership is determined by the five personality traits especially extraversion which is exhibited in many effective leaders.
Operating in a group for example in an organization requires close monitoring of the influence of each individual member in the group. Team outcomes can be determined by task conflict and personality composition. Task conflict is defined as the existence of a difference in viewpoints, ideologies, disagreements and decisions among members in a group in relation to a specific task allocated. The majority of the existing research has been focused on the effects of personality traits on team outcomes under certain contingencies. The big five personality traits have been closely associated with team performance (Bradley, Klotz, Postlethwaite & Brown, 2013). The five personality traits affect team outcomes by interfering either positively or negatively on team processes.
Openness is one of the five personality traits which referrers to open-mindedness, curiosity, and the tendency to be imaginative. In team performance, open-minded team members take a collaborative approach in conflict resolution thereby reducing the amount of time of resolving a conflict. Speedy resolution of conflicts in organizations helps in the facilitation of processes thereby increasing the chances of experiencing positive team outcomes. An average level of openness is crucial in facilitating open discussions in a group which allows members to feel free in relaying doubts related to tasks (Bradley et al., 2013). This provides stability which in turn leads to positive team outcomes. Emotional stability also plays a crucial role in team performance. The ability to exhibit calmness and steadiness allows team members to apply successful methods of conflict resolution which brings together all stakeholders in solving task-related conflicts (Kong, Konczak & Bottom, 2015).
Perfect leadership is a far-fetched idea to many people around the world. There are many existing leadership styles applied in organizations with distinct features suitable for each set of organizations. There is an assumption that leaders are born which argues in line with the idea that genetics have an influence on personality traits (Chierotti, 2018). There are inherent traits that determine the quality of leadership such as sociability, integrity, curiosity, and ambition. Effective leadership is defined in two dimensions; the ability of an individual to build and maintain a group or team in an organization and in terms of functionality perspective (Bono & Judge, 2004). Leadership despite its many aspects can be defined as the ability to influence other people to pursue a certain way of completing tasks or decision-making process involving shared objectives. An effective leader has certain attributes that enable him or her to convince team members and facilitate a smooth transition of processes within the organization. Extraversion personality trait comes into play in instances where an organization needs to make crucial decisions affecting the organization (Hassan, Asad & Hoshino, 2016).
In the real world, there are no specific personality traits that predict the effectiveness of a leader in all situations. What exists is that certain organizations with specific organizational cultures require the application of specific leadership styles and the presence of specific personality traits. Such situations are minimal thereby one cannot conclusively state that all organizations require a universal personality trait for survival (Marsiglia, 2005). The existence of organizations and their ability to merge with the external environment is dependent on a developed functional structure that is unique to the specific goals, visions, and strategies of that organization. The established functionality structure is credited for the development of a suitable internal environment that forms the basis of selection of members with certain personality traits to drive effectiveness in the organization (Clifford & Cohn, 1964). This way the organization ends up having employees with similar personality traits that allows them to cope with both the external and internal environments.
Nature and nurture personality traits are closely intertwined with organizational performance and effective leadership. Personality traits are genetically transferred from one offspring to another and the external environment has a great impact on nurturing personality traits. The big five personality traits include agreeableness, neocriticism, and openness to experience, extroversions, and dependability. Individual possessing these personality traits contribute immensely to the success of an organization by embracing a successful conflict resolution mechanisms which are tailored with a collective aspect. Personality traits play a key role in shaping team outcome and perfect leadership. Organizations tend to employ people with specific personality traits that allow them to adapt easily to the set functional structure developed.
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Bradley, B. H., Klotz, A. C., Postlethwaite, B. E., & Brown, K. G. (2013). Ready to rumble: How team personality composition and task conflict interact to improve performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 98(2), 385.
Chierotti, L. (2018). Good Leadership: Nature versus Nurture. Retrieved from https://www.inc.com/logan-chierotti/science-says-these-factors-determine-good-leadership.html
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Fleenor, J. W. (2006). Trait approach to leadership. Psychology, 37, 651-665.
Hassan, H., Asad, S., & Hoshino, Y. (2016). Determinants of leadership style in big five personality dimensions. Universal Journal of management, 4(4), 161-179.
Kong, D. T., Konczak, L. J., & Bottom, W. P. (2015). Team performance as a joint function of team member satisfaction and agreeableness. Small Group Research, 46(2), 160-178.
Marsiglia, A. J. (2005). The relationship between leadership and personality. Saatavissa: http://lead-inspire. Com/Papers-Articles/Leadership-Management/The% 20Relationship% 20between% 20leadership% 20and% 20Personality. Pdf. [Luettu 15.10. 2013].
Nye, J. (2009). Nature and Nurture in Leadership. Retrieved from https://www.thecrimson.com/article/2009/6/2/nature-and-nurture-in-leadership
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