Natural Disasters

Abstract

The world is bombarded endlessly with problems and threats. As if life were not enough, these disasters come in many forms and sizes and can vary with the significance of them. The one catastrophe that has been gaining more popularity and producing more damage is that of no other the hurricane. Which have been getting increasingly more violent over time to endure them there needs to be an improved understanding of how hurricanes form and what a hurricane is. How they influence the geographical region and the consequence of the storm.

Natural Disasters: Horrendous Hurricanes

When a massive hurricane is approaching the community what will the community do? How will the general population prepare? Out of the general population who have experienced at least one hurricane over a portion of them arranged via purchasing additional water and food (Colosimo). Of the general population who have met three tropical storms, did they get ready correspondingly? Hurricanes Katrina, Sandy, and Andrew are associated with their devastation. In 1992 tropical storm Andrew, which was listed as a class four-hit southeast Florida, however, has since moved up to a classification five. Then in late August of 2005 hurricane Katrina struck New Orleans; it was likewise a class five. Following with hurricane sandy in 2012 which hit new jersey at class three. While they may appear to be strikingly compared these three tropical storms are obliterating catastrophic events which are distinctive in their arrangement harm attributes and recuperation.
Hurricane Andrew had unusual characteristics from both Katrina and Sandy. Andrew’s winds are still mysterious; the winds might have reached over 164 mph, a sign from the National Hurricane Center’s anemometer that broke at this level (Burkholder-Allen). However, the winds of Sandy and Katrina are known. “Andrew even set up minor tornadoes that wrecked many homes,” (“Wolfe”). According to Potter, a certified meteorologist, Andrew’s span was only ninety miles (11). Andrew covered a smaller amount of area and moved quicker than Katrina and Sandy (Allen). Overall, Andrew was a petite, rapid moving storm that caused damage, mostly by strong wind force; but what are the characteristics of Katrina and Sandy?

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In contrast to Andrew and Katrina, Sandy had unique attributes. There were snow and blizard warnings, and it had its strong winds around one hundred miles west of the eye (Borenstein, A.12). Winds for Sandy were in the low hundreds. Hurricane Sandy was a violent extratropical wind, which implies the vitality originates from both hot and cold air. Dissimilar to Katrina and Andrew, Sandy had a substantial breadth of 900 miles (“Looking at the Winds of Sandy and Katrina”). This substantial distance across is multiple times the extent of Katrina and multiple times the measure of Andrew; additionally, Katrina and Andrew did not draw their vitality from a virus source. Since these typhoons were so unique, how did individuals get ready for everything?

Despite Andrews’ characteristics, the overall public of residence and southern Florida did not design so well. Various people in southeastern Florida remained in their homes, paying little heed to the pieces of advice and close to 700,000 people clearing their homes Burkholder-Allen. “Since South Florida had not experienced any destructive occasion that had been truly bargaining in some time, most by far disregarded it as only an unimportant caution,” (Wolfe). As demonstrated by Allen a Miami writer who moreover verified the outcome of Katrina the overall public of South Florida had no chance to anticipate Andrew; it simply transformed into a hurricane two days before it struck the zone. No one knew accurately where tropical storm Andrew was going. A couple of individuals in South Florida believed Andrew would change its course, as a similar number of several typhoons have; like this, they hurled parties the end of the earlier week Andrew hit. Various voyagers were encouraged to leave yet a lion’s offer stayed Santana 14.

In contrast to Andrew, more people were prepared for Hurricane Katrina. About 1.2 million people were evacuated from New Orleans; medical teams and relief efforts were stationed to be able to help right after Katrina (Miskel, 93). Although evacuation went smoothly, there were others who were not able to leave the city. Evacuation routes were perplexing, which left those behind unprepared (Miskel, 94).

Unlike Andrew and Katrina, those who faced Hurricane Sandy were well prepared; help was instantly ready for those waiting to receive it (Manuel, A153). Those responsible for preparation learned their lessons from previous hurricanes; emergency centers were put into place, along with water and generators, before Sandy even hit land (“Washington Hurricane Sandy Struck a Year Ago but Recovery is Ongoing”).

Besides Andrew’s characteristics and preparation, the damage differs from Katrina and Sandy as well. Unlike Katrina and Sandy, Andrew’s death count was low at 65. Many of the essential facilities necessary for rebuilding were destroyed; water was polluted, telephone lines were damaged, and hospitals and grocery stores were devastated. As a result, food, water, and medication could not be delivered. Coral reefs were also damaged (Burkholder-Allen). A total of 125,000 homes in Southeastern Florida were either damaged or destroyed; likewise, a vast number of mobile homes were leveled, about “90%” (Landsea et al., 1700). As seen in the image, mobile homes in Homestead were destroyed by Hurricane Andrew (“Florida Mobile Home Park Destroyed by Hurricane Andrew”). Although many homes were destroyed, flooding was not the primary concern, unlike Katrina and Sandy. According to Karyn Wolfe, a woman who lived in Homestead when Andrew hit, the wind caused more damage than flooding.

Katrina’s damage differed from Andrew’s significantly. According to Miskel, a former Deputy Assistant, Associate Director for the Federal Emergency Management Agency, Hurricane Katrina caused $100 billion worth of damage; this is significantly more than Andrew or Sandy (99). Due to Katrina damaging levees in New Orleans, about “80%” of the city was flooded, with some parts well under 20 feet of water (“Hurricane Katrina”). Because of the flooding, rescue groups such as the Red Cross were prevented from helping citizens in need. The relief was prevented from power outages as well (Colton, Kates and Laska, 39).

Conversely, Hurricane Sandy had less damage because it was less convincing. According to Manuel, a regular contributor to Environmental Health Perspectives, due to Hurricane Sandy, the U.S. has an estimate of $50 billion worth of damage (A 153). Flooding from Hurricane Sandy caused road blockage; in addition to this, millions of people in New Jersey lost power (“Hurricane Sandy: One Year Later”).

In addition to Andrew’s characteristics, preparation, and damage, the recovery/resulting changes differed from Katrina and Sandy. In 1993, a year after Hurricane Andrew, Miami experienced an increase of about “4%” in job growth (“Sandy: After the Pain, There Will Be Gained,” 14). Many in the community tried to market their house while others abandoned them completely (Santana, 14). Because of Hurricane Andrew, building codes in South Florida have dramatically improved; houses are now required to have glass that is resistant to damaging forces or shutters. In addition to these building codes, Hurricane Andrew as allowed the government to predict efficiently, prepare for and respond to a hurricane (Allen). According to Santana, a reporter who lived through Hurricane Andrew, the residents have learned to prepare for whatever nature has in store. Most South Floridians own shutters, and they put the shutters up almost immediately (14).
On the contrary, Katrina’s recovery and resulting changes were slightly different. Recovery was primarily focused on rebuilding the economy and buildings (Colton, Kates, and Laska, 40). Because of the monetary loss, in 2005, the growth of the economy in New Orleans had a net loss of “0.5%” (Sandy: After the Pain, There Will Be a Gain,” 14). The New Orleans’ educational system has improved because of Katrina. Before, “64%” of schools were “academically unacceptable.” Now, the number of charter schools will increase (“New Orleans Five Years Later; from Devastation to Recovery-in-Progress After Hurricane Katrina,” A.20). According to Colton, Kates, and Laska, New Orleans learned its lesson; because of Katrina, both New Orleans and Louisiana have improved their responses to storms (40).
Sandy’s recovery and resulting changes were different from that of Andrew or Katrina. There may be an advance in jobs in the construction companies to help rebuild the communities (“Sandy: After the Pain There Will Be Gained,” 14). Because of the floods, houses needed to be gutted to rebuild from water damage. Many people who are rebuilding are upgrading the energy efficiency of their homes; this will reduce energy consumption and gas emission over time (Manuel, A 157).
Although similarities can be drawn, the differences can be shown when people compare the three. From weather patterns to the long-term effects, Andrew, Katrina, and Sandy are three unique hurricanes that will never be forgotten by those who endured them and those who continue to learn about them. If one thing is sure, it is that all three hurricanes have helped us better prepare for future natural disasters, despite the differences they had.

References

Allen, Greg. “Hurricane Andrew’s Legacy: ‘Like A Bomb’ In Florida.” Npr.org. 23 Aug. 2012. Web 10 Apr. 2019
Borenstein, Seth. “12 Strange Weather Feature of Sandy.” The Charleston Gazette. 28 Oct. 2013. A.12. ProQuest. Web 11 Apr. 2019
Burkholder-Allen, Kelly. “Hurricane Andrew (1992). “Encyclopedia of Disaster Relief. Ed. Thousand Oaks, Ca: SAGE reference, 2011. 316-318. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web 11 Apr. 2019.
Colosimo, Danielle. “Hurricanes.” Survey. 11 Apr. 2019.
Colton, Craig E., Kates, Robert W., and Shirly B Laska. “Three Years After Katrina: Lessons for Community Resilience.” Environmental Magazine. 2008: 38-47. EBSCOhost. Web 11 Apr. 2019.
“Comparing the Winds of Sandy and Katrina.” nasa.gov. 2012. Web. 10 Apr. 2019.
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“Hurricane, n.” Oxford English Dictionary. n.d. OED. Web. 10 Apr. 2019
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Landsea, Christopher W., et al. “A Reanalysis of Hurricane Andrew’s Intensity.” American Meteorological Society. 85.11 (Nov. 2004): 1699-1712 EBSCOhost. Web. 13 Apr. 2019.
Manuel, John. “The Long Road to Recovery.” Environmental Health Perspectives. 121.5. (May 2013): A152-A159. EBSCOhost. Web. 12 Apr. 2019.
Miskel, James. “Hurricane Katrina.” Disaster Response and Homeland Security: What Works and What Doesn’t. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, 2006. ABC-CLIO eBook Collection. Web. 13. Apr. 2019.
“New Orleans Five Years Later, from Devastation to recovery-in-Progress After Hurricane Katrina.” The Washington Post. 29 Aug. 2010. A.20. ProQuest. Web 13 Apr. 2019.
Potter, Sean. “August 24, 1992: Hurricane Andrew.” Weatherwise. Aug. 2012: 10-11. EBSCOhost. Web. 13 Apr. 2019.
“Sandy: After The Pain, There Will BE Gain.” Bloomberg Business Week. Nov. 2012: 13-14. EBSCOhost. Web 13 Apr. 2019.
Santana, Sofia. Remembering ANDREW.: Weatherwise. Aug 2002: 14. EBSCOhost. Web 13 Apr. 2019
“Special Edition: The Aftermath of Sandy: A Look At Hurricane Sandy’s Damage to Pt. Pleasant Beach, NJ.” Today [Video]. 31 Oct. 2012. Gale Power Search. Web 14 Apr. 2019.
“Washington: Hurricane Sandy Struck a Year Ago but Recovery in Ongoing.” US Official News. 30 Oct. 2013. Lexis Nexis. Web 14 Apr. 2019.
Wolfe, Karyn. Personal Interview. 13 Apr. 2019.

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