Effects of Divorce on Childre

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Effects of Divorce on Children ABSTRACT: With over 50% of marriages today ending in divorce the pressing question is what, if any, kind of effect does this have on children involved under the age of 18. With divorce on the rise, and the rate of divorce increasing 10-fold over the last 100 years this is a question that must be asked. This paper includes the analysis of various websites, articles, and books, even an article 15 years old. This paper will study the research that’s been conducted on the children of broken marriages and study the different factors that play into the success or failure of various age groups and demographics.

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Research will show the different physical, biosocial, and psychosocial effects and factors of children from marriages and single parent homes. This research will show that there are many different factors that play into the development of children through trying times. EFFECTS OF DIVORCE ON CHILDREN With divorce rates increasing by more than 10-fold over the past 100 years, there have been countless studies on the effects that these family changes have on children (Furstenberg 1990).

Researchers agree that there are indeed consequences to the nuclear family being separated; however, the extent of the aftermath is still debated. Some areas of discussion are: 1. What are the short-term effects of divorce on children? 2. What are the long-term effects of divorce on children? 3. What are the factors that make divorce “easier” on children? The research conducted here will focus on these three questions, and break the first two questions down into cognitive, biosocial, and psychosocial arenas to examine them further.

Are there short-term effects of divorce on children? Short-term effects of divorce in the case of children are probably the most studied because the results are easier to gather for obvious reasons; it’s much harder to study a single individual over the course of years than it is months. Researchers have found plenty of areas that are affected by the splitting of the nuclear family setting. We will classify these findings into cognitive, biosocial, and psychosocial findings. cogniTIve short-term effects Much of the research conducted on divorce and children is inconclusive.

On one hand, Amato’s research found that when it comes to cognitive development children who place part of the blame for their parents’ divorce on themselves are more poorly adjusted which lead to the children showings signs of psychosocial issues which will be discussed in detail shortly (Emery and Kelly 2003). Emery and Kelly point out another important part of the cognitive development of children who experience divorce. Their research indicates that most children aren’t informed about the separation the parents are about to partake in which leaves children confused, and with no one to blame (2003).

Berger confirms, only 56% of children live with their nuclear family so issues like these are important (2008). Foulkes’ research adds to this topic by explaining that preschoolers’ underdeveloped cognitive ability, and egocentric nature contribute to their guilt when their parents get divorced (2001). This indicates that their understanding could result in “acting-out” or other negative behavior. From the cognitive standpoint much of the effects depend on age and the current cognitive ability (Foulkes 2001). biosocial short-term effects

The biosocial effects are perhaps the easiest to identify. Furstenberg’s research affirms, “The most obvious effect of divorce is that it typically brings about a sudden reconfiguration of the family (1990). ” This reconfiguration usually results in the female gaining custody of the children while the male is left to his own devices. According to Furstenberg’s research this leaves the female at a double disadvantage because not only do they solely bare the responsibility of the children, but also research shows that the male leaves with the highest economic capability (1990).

In addition to economic conditions worsening, divorce causes one parent to usually be left out in the children’s lives and so this results in a feeling of parental loss in children (Hughes, 2009). Either of these biosocial situations could lead to socioeconomic situations that are lacking compared to people with two parents in the home. These factors could all contribute to psychosocial issues, which we will discuss now. psychosocial short-term effects Amato’s research concludes that the blunt psychosocial effects that can be measured in the short-term are the effects that come from the initial breaking up (2003).

He says, “The uncoupling process typically sets into motion numerous events that people experience as stressful (2003). ” These stressors create an environment where emotional, behavioral, and economic downturns are more likely (Furstenberg 1990). As is the nature of psychosocial diseases effects of divorce are usually more measurable in the long-term. are there long term effects of divorce on children? There are plenty of factors and even personal experiences that tell us why divorce has an impact on children (Hughes 2009). “Divorce has damaging effects on children that extend long after parental separation. (Laurance 2003). Jayson’s article says, “My line on this is that most children are not seriously affected by divorce in the long-term, but divorce raises the risk that a child will have problems” so how do all of these things add up? What really are some effects that divorce brings about? cognitive long-term effects Research shows that long-term effects do not include self-guilt and blame as early effects show, but rather 80% of college students studies said they believed their parents getting divorced was the right thing (Emery and Kelly 2003).

Foulkes says, “Children of divorced families tend to have long-term adjustment difficulties when there is ongoing conflict between their parents (2001). There are also relational consequences to divorce. Research indicates that children from divorced homes experience less satisfying sex lives, and marriages. From the standpoint of cognitive development, children whose parents got divorced are usually more inclusive (Furstenberg 1990). The Oklahoma Marriage Initiative even concludes that children from “broken homes” are more likely to end up divorced (n. d. ).

The most prevalent long-term effects are biosocial and psychosocial. Biosocial long-term effects Researchers agree that the key risk factor for children coming from divorced homes is poverty (Laurance 2003). This stems from less parental contact, and thus less accessibility to better schools, higher education, and even business relationships (Furstengerg 1990). In relation to the short-term effects, long-term effects include the areas associated with only one parent being involved in the children’s lives: parental loss, support loss, lack of parental competence (Parker n. d. ).

In addition to these areas, Furstenberg’s research shows that divorce could lead to earlier marriage, earlier sexual activity, and different views of marriage as compared to those who grew up in a nuclear family (1990). There are also psychosocial factors to divorce. psycosocial long-term effects The psychosocial effects that researchers show to exist in the lives of some victims of divorced families seem to be the most harmful. Psychological damage in the form of depression, personality disorders, and, anti-personality traits are exhibited in some children who experience divorce (Amato 2000).

Though these effects may take time to manifest, Furstenberg indicates that these effects rarely last beyond adulthood (1990). One psychological disorder does remain beyond adulthood though, and it leave adult children feeling as if ever since their parents were divorced they had no control over their lives anymore (Kelly and Emery 2003). This leads to people who experience divorce to never really lose that sense of pain when considering the other parent that they “lost” (Emery and Kelly 2003).

Psychosocial long-term effects are the most prevalent, and also the most debated when it comes to divorce and children. What are the factors that make divorce EASIER on children? So what can parents do to negate the effects of divorce? Obviously, not everyone who experiences divorce comes out a psychological wreck, so what went well in these cases? Amato’s research says, “Protective factors act like shock absorbers and weaken the links between divorce related events and people’s experience of stress… (2000)” What “shock absorbers can ensure a smooth transition through a divorce situation?

Amato’s research suggests that besides the uncontrollable factors such as age, race, and ethnicity other moderating factors include economic welfare, and the ability of the child to build good interpersonal, and intrapersonal relationships (2000). According to Foulkes research other factors include not relying on your child to meet your emotional needs, and not arguing with the other parent in front of the child (2001). In conclusion, research is inconclusive as to who is affected by divorce more, but it seems that the most damage is done to younger children who don’t understand what is going on.

There are deficiencies in the research as well as to whether or not the effects seen in these children can be blamed on divorce. In my personal experience with divorce, moderators played a key role in my psychological development. Mostly, the loving support from all of my family and in my case that was all from my mom’s side kept me sane. Even to this day I still have negative feelings toward my father. When it’s all said and done though it’s impossible to predict how children will deal with divorce, because all children will deal with it differently. References

Amato, P. R. The Consequences of Divorce for Adults and Children. Journal of Marriage and Family, 62(4), 1269-1287. Berger, K. S. (2008). The Developing Person Through the Life Span (7th Edition ed. ). (J. Bayne, Ed. ) New York, NY, USA: WORTH PUBLISHERS. Emery, R. E. & Kelly, J. B. Children’s Adjustment Following Divorce: Risk and Resilience Perspectives. Family Relations, 52(4), 352-362, Foulkes-Jamison, L. (2001, January 1), The Effects of Divorce on Children, Retrieved from https://cpancf. com/articles_files/efffectsdivorceonchildren. asp Furstenberg, F. F. Jr.

Divorce and the American Family. Annual Review of Sociology, 16, 379-403. Hughes, R. (2009, April 10), The Effects of Divorce on Children, Retrieved from https://parenting247. org/article. cfm? ContentID=646 Jayson, S. (2008, April 24), Study: Divorce May Not Cause Kids’ Bad Behavior, USA Today. Retrieved from https://www. usatoday. com/news/health/2008-04-24-divorce-kids-behavior_N. htm Laurance, J. (2003, January 24), Divorce ‘Harms Children Long After Separation’, The Independent. Retrieved from https://www. independent. co. uk/life-style/health-and-families/health-news/divor

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Effects of Divorce on Childre. (2017, Sep 13). Retrieved December 3, 2022 , from

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