In this study, I will research on Human development. Human development is an understanding of the methodical study of science around the world. Also, learning the concepts of the field of human development. However, learning the aspects of geology or astronomy fields. Such as gaining, the study of human development and personal experiences being learned. And as learning the different stages that take place in each theory. Two people discovered human development. Jeff. Sixty and Lene fifty-one who know about the understanding of human development. Therefore, explaining the time of our lifestyle skills. By researching the difference in cultural change in common evolutionary history today, which culture will come across our beliefs, arts, and patterns in life. Such as learning the theoretical conceptions of human development. Including, the rediscovering of the new cultural-developmental model, including the model of the framework. I will also explain the steps and understanding of the new stage of emerging adulthood.
Keywords: human development, cultural development model, theory, culture, emerging adulthood. ?
Theories of Human Development
The scientific method of the theories human development is explained by three theorists. Each of the theorists has their own experience with their unique theory. One of the theorist names is Sigmund Freud who proposed the psychosexual theory which, explains the age period of infancy, toddlerhood, early childhood, middle childhood, and adolescence. Erikson’s psychosocial theory is the opposite of Freud’s theory. Erikson states our human development does not have to be sexual, it can be about our lifespan. “Erikson viewed development as continuing throughout the lifespan, not as determined solely by the early years in Freud’s theory.” Last, Urie Bronfenbrenner was the theorist of the ecological theory who explained five systems called, microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, and chronosystem.
First, Freud’s theory, Freud shows us that the infancy is the stage that shows oral, toddlerhood is the stage that shows anal, early childhood is the stage that shows phallic, middle childhood is the demonstration stage of latency, and that last age period stage is genital. He gives use the sight on relationships and how interacting goes about. Erikson’s psychosocial theory, that gives us a reason why we need to know the eight stages because starting from an infant into an adult we are capable to gain knowledge and understand from these eight stages of human development. For example, trust vs. mistrust in the infancy stage. Next, toddlerhood which is autonomy vs. shame and doubt. Third, the early childhood that explains initiative vs. guilt. Fourth, is the middle childhood that stages in industry vs. inferiority. Fifth, adolescence which explains the identity vs. indemnity confusion stage. Sixth, early adulthood that stages about intimacy vs. isolation. Seventh, middle adulthood explains generativity vs. stagnation. And the late adulthood stage explains ego integrity vs. despair. This is important because we can learn to grow socially and emotionally throughout a lifetime. Last, Bronfenbrenner’s five systems, microsystem is how others affect one’s behavior. Second, mesosystem is how someone could be affected by working longer hours because they have less time with family. Third, exosystem explains the difference between other’s religion, school, and media. Fourth, Macrosystem is the contrast of other beliefs and values. Last, the chronosystem is respecting other historical changes. Bronfenbrenner stages is needed because his systems express the learning of diverse people around the world, so we can learn and know others better who are raised or taught in a different cultural way.
In Eun Barohny’s article “From Learning to Development: A Sociocultural Approach to Instruction.” He addresses that Lev Vygotsky is the founder of social interaction, “Founded on the works of Lev Vygotsky, espouses the view that social interaction…’ Also, he explains that communication plays an important role in life because interacting is needed for jobs, schools, and anywhere public. ‘Communication, via the use of language…’Therefore, interacting with others will improve business skills and relationships between workers or new friends. Barohny stating, that sociocultural embraces the reason social life is important. For example, our society and culture difference because we’re learning about one’s practices, as they teach their difference to us for a better understanding of their childhood, behavior, and ethics. By saying, “The interrelationships among teaching, learning, and development, as discussed above, is based on a sociocultural principle that maintains that development proceeds from the social plane…” In closing, the author is reaching about how leaning and instructions are involved as we were young to adults because it’s a common process we learned in school and still learning know to gain more knowledge.
My second article, “The Impact of Culture on Corruption, Gross Domestic Product, and Human Development.” The two author’s Wolfgang, Schermuly states that “High versus low power individuals are more likely to see others as means to own ends, exhibit a higher self-focus, construe others in a more stereotypic way, are more inaccurate in their inferences, practice more out-group discrimination and show more disinhibited, counter normative behavior.” By means that adapting to the different environments leading to cultural differences because of the differences, we share in life.
Therefore, shaping our difference so we could share our cultural values. However, our differences in our believes, desires, and emotions are different because we were raised differently. For example, people inhabit more on their self- focus because success comes from believing, in yourself. After all, we are the only one that could make success extend throughout life. For instance, self- awareness will help individuals improve self-esteem, self-awareness, knowledge, etc. Because in life we all need to become successful people to achieve goals. Wolfgang, Schermuly also, addresses that, “Inequality-adjusted Human Development (IHDI) is hypothesized to depend positively on GDP…” Resulting in, help for the growth of our community and the health of the economy rates calculated for manufacture. “(IHDI) is hypothesized to depend negatively on corruption…” The reason for this is because of, other’s wealth or poverty that is being political redistribution in the economic system. In conclusion, human development plays a major role today. Because human development creates our cultural difference, so we could lead from one another
Culture, Community and Development. (2021, Oct 12).
Retrieved October 27, 2021 , from
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