Our precedent case: Case name: Crocker v Sundance Northwest Resorts Ltd._______ CanLii citation: 1988 CanLII 45 (SCC)________________________ Our precedent case has played an important role in the development of Canadian law; according to our textbook, it stands for the following principle (you may quote your textbook here):
Through our research we identified the following 2 cases where our precedent case was used by the Court to help determine the outcome.
CanLii citation: 2013 NSCA 95 (CanLII)__________________
CanLii citation: 2003 CanLII 25623 (ON SC)______________ Name of Case and Citation: Burton Canada Company v. Coady, 2013 NSCA 95 (CanLII) Type and Level of Case: Superior Court Facts:
How the Court Applied the Principles: The court considered that Burton and Wentworth owned a duty of care to Coady. As an occupier, the company should warn snowboarders the inherent risks of snowboarding, particularly for a snowboarder who is under the age of 18. Also, some instructions should be given to the snowboarders when they want to try the unfamiliar high-end board. The court rejected Burtonâ€™s defence of voluntary assumption of risk. As the snowboarding involves certain inherent risks, these dangers and hazards may result in serious personal injury or death. However, no signature was signed on Codayâ€™s waiver by his parents or guardians, and the tragedy could be avoided if Burton insisted on parentâ€™s signing. Burton asserted that Coady also had contributory negligence due to previously purchasing high-caffeine energy drinks. Nevertheless, the Judge pointed out the plaintiff was not affected by the drink and he did not take any particular energy drink before the accident. Judgment: Burton and Wentworth was responsible for half of the compensation ($24,000 in total). My thoughts: The court judged that Burton and Wentworth owned duty of cares to plaintiff, Coady. In my opinion, the Courtâ€™s analysis of this case is sound, since Burton and Wentworth should take responsibility of taking care of individuals as entertainment providers, especially for a boy who is under 18 years of age. I personally do not agree with the result. The outcome was morally and ethically inappropriate, even though Coady received the compensation, which can be treated as compensatory to the plaintiff. Nevertheless, this result may increase moral risk. For some individuals who want to get a great amount of money, they may sacrifice their physical health to earn the compensation. In consideration of risk management, for any outdoor activities, sponsors should present waiver and insist it signed by teenagersâ€™ parents or guardians, as well as verify playersâ€™ condition that not only include ages or IDs, but also contain alcohol drink or high-caffeine drink. Moreover, host ought to warn participants about the nature and potential danger of activities, which means companies also need to post signs to alarm players. Furthermore, sponsors should prepare protective equipments such as helmet and kneecap for customersâ€™ safety. Name of Case and Citation: Hutchison v. Daredevil Park Inc., 2003 CanLII 25623 (ON SC) Type and Level of Case: Superior Court Facts:
How the Court Applied the Principle: According to the Occupiersâ€™ Liability Act, Daredevil Park has the responsibility to ensure the safety of customers. However, in this case, when the plaintiff entered the waterslide, there was no instruction from the attendant, and no signage or other warning at the entrance. Moreover, the lack of handrails contributed to this accident. The court judged that there was no evidence to prove that Mr. Hutchison knew it was risky to use the slide, and as he already paid for the ticket, he had the legal right to enjoy the facilities safely in the park. Therefore, the voluntary assumption of risk is not applied in this case. Mr. Hutchison had no knowledge about how to use waterslides and he didnâ€™t ask the attendant for instruction, so he had a contributory responsibility for his damage. Judgment: Daredevil Park had primary liability for the accident, so it was responsible for 80 percent of Mr. Hutchisonâ€™s injury. And Mr. Hutchison undertook 20 percent of all his damage due to contributory negligence. My thoughts: From my point of view, the outcome is legally appropriate because this kind of result for a public park that someone may get hurt is foreseeable (Just like in Crockerâ€™s case, Sundance organised competition and provided drinks, so Crockerâ€™s damage could be predictable). And as an occupier, it is the parkâ€™s duty to ensure customersâ€™ safety by all reasonable precautions. Nevertheless, different from Crockerâ€™s case, Mr. Hutchison did not sign a waiver with the park, so he had no voluntary assumption of risk. I argue that the judgment is morally acceptable. As an adult with mature thought, Mr. Hutchison was supposed to ask for instruction as he had never entered waterslides before to avoid risk, so he ought to take partial responsibility for his injury. In terms of the risk management for an organization, I believe it would be difficult for them to operate, especially in the public place since there are so many resources and labors are involved. Therefore, for Daredevil Park, it is important to train the employees as well as make enough and appropriate arrangement of employees. In addition, more signs and warnings should be built in those areas with potential risks. Comparison Both of the two cases we found used the principles in our precedent case, however, there are some differences about how they applied the principles as followed: Duty of care: In both of the two cases, Daredevil Park and Burton Company are occupiers so they have the responsibility to ensure the safety of their customers. In the Parkâ€™s case, the objective reason of the accident is the deficiency of instruction and handrails for protecting the customers, and the lack of signage or other warning at the entrance. Similarly, in Burtonâ€™s case, the company had the responsibility to warn a snowboarder, particularly who is under the age of 18, about the inherent risks of snowboarding and how to use an unfamiliar board. Voluntary assumption of risk: In the Parkâ€™s case, no waiver was signed by Mr. Hutchison, which means there was no evidence to prove that Mr. Hutchison knew it was risky to use the slide, so the voluntary assumption of risk is not applied. By contrast, in the other case, the so-called waiver agreement was signed by the plaintiff, which means the plaintiff voluntarily assumed the risk. Nevertheless, in this case, the equipment users required a contract signed by parents or guardians when the user is under age of 18, and no signature was signed by Coadyâ€™s parents or guardians. Hence, the court rejected Burtonâ€™s defence of voluntary assumption of risk because if Burton insisted on parentâ€™s signing, the tragedy may not happen. Contributory negligence: In the Parkâ€™s case, as an adult, Mr. Hutchison had no knowledge about how to use waterslides but he didnâ€™t ask the attendant for instruction, so he had a contributory responsibility and undertook 20 percent of all his damage. However in Burtonâ€™s case, Coady had no contributory negligence, because based on the judgment of court, it was too dangerous to let customers to try the barrel jib feature; also, it was not appropriate for the existence of such free high-energy drinks under the circumstances, so all his damage was undertaken by the company. 1
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