Sugar Cane Diffusion The advantages of diffusion The advantages of diffusion over conventional milling have been confimed by the performances of DE SMET diffusers in industrial operation. De Smet diffusers have processed several million tons of cane in different countries and proved their : v v v v v v Simplicity Efficiency Low maintenance costs Low operation costs Mechanical reliability Adaptation to changes in capacity. Types of De Smet diffusers De Smet supplies two types of diffusers : v The BAGASSE (TS) DIFFUSER to process first mill bagasse, v and the CANE (TN) DIFFUSER, to process shredded cane.
De Smet can therefore give you unbiased advice on the type of diffuser best suited to your conditions. Both types of diffusers are mechanicallly similar and the TS type can be converted into a TN diffuser. Auxiliary equipment DE SMET does not manufacture cane preparation and bagasse dewatering equipment but has thoroughly studied these problems and keeps in close touch with new developments in these fields. This enables DE SMET to advise on how to make maximum use of existing equipment and to assume responsibility for the performance of the whole extraction plant when supplied through DE SMET. Principles of operation
Operation of the diffuser is based on systematic counter current washing of the cane or bagasse by means of imbibition water. In practice, this is achieved by forming a bed of shredded cane or first mill bagasse on a conveyor. Water is added at the discharge end of the conveyor and percolates through the bed of bagasse and the perforated slats of the conveyor. The water dissolves the sugar in the bagasse and the thin juice thus formed is collected in a hopper. This juice is moved forward one stage by pumping and the process is repeated until the juice reaches maximum concentration at the feed end of the diffuser.
The diffuser may be conditioned either for single-flow or for parallel-flows juice circulation. Description of the diffuser The housing of the DE SMET diffuser is of welded steel construction. It is from 35 meters (110 ft) to 52 meters (170 ft) long; the cross section is rectangular and diffusers of different capacities are made in different widths. The conveyor grids and screens are supported by two outboard type roller chains with a pitch of about 3 feet. These chains are supported at the extreme ends by sprockets.
At the driven end, the sprockets are coupled through a gearwheel and pinion to a variable speed hydraulic drive or electric gearmotor drive. Flow Sheet of a De Smet Cane Diffusion Plant (TN) Flow Sheet of a De Smet Bagasse Diffusion Plant (TS) The conveyor itself is made or articulated frames to which the screens are fixed. The screens and frames are rigidly attached to corresponding links of the two chains. These chains are fitted with self-lubricating bushings. The rollers ride on parallel rails. The return rails are completely exposed underneath the housing, giving full visibility and accessibility to the screens.
Feed conveyor View of cane diffuser inlet The thickness of the bed varies from 1. 5 meters (5 ft) to 2 metres (6 ft). The space between the two conveyor spans is occuped by a large tank with a sloping bottom split into individual hoppers by means of vertical plates. These vertical plates have horizontal slots, at specified levels, through which the juice overflows to the next hopper. At the end of the conveyor, there is a revolving scraper to even out the flow of bagasse which falls in an outlet hopper. This hopper is provided with a conveyor for removing the bagasse.
The diffuser is equipped with lifting screws in the presswater feedback area. Juice distributors and pumps During the whole duration of its passage through the diffuser, the bed of cane is submitted to intensive sprays of juice of progressively decreasing concentration. The juice is evenly sprayed above the bed by a series of overflowing troughs extending on the whole width of the housing. One of these troughs is fitted above each juice-collecting hopper and designed so as to distribute uniformly the juice across the bed, with an accuracy of 2%.
The curve showing the decreasing concentration of the juice in the successive hoppers is very steady. BRIX curves (1) TNC diffuser (2) TSC diffuser The last trough is fed with pure water. All the juice hoppers have the same width. They collect the juice percolating from each juice distributor through the bed of cane. Each hopper is piped to an individual high capacity centrifugal pump. Each pump is piped to take juice from one hopper and to spray it above the preceding hopper (in opposite direction to the movement of the bed). Lateral view with juice distributors feeding pipes
A last single pump feeds the richest juice to the rich juice tank. Another pump of great capacity continuously circulates rich juice on the fresh prepared canes. The intensive flow of cane or first mill bagasse is fed into the diffuser by a drag type cross conveyor so designed as to spread the feed evenly on the diffuser conveyor. Juice from the rich juice tank is pumped to the factory. The diffuser is operated and controlled from a central panel on which all instruments are grouped. A mimic flow diagram and very complete instrumentation facilitate control of the process.
In very large installations (8,000 tons/day and above) TV cameras could be fitted in the diffuser as an option and feeding operations andgeneral flow pattern of raw material and juices watched from a screen fitted to the control panel. Control panel Advantages of the DE SMET cane diffusion process Operating walkway High extraction achieved in combination with existing milling equipment or in completely new extraction plants. Low initial cost of the overall extraction plant because DE SMET diffusers are designed to work with conventional cane preparation and milling equipment.
The capital cost is lower than that of a milling tandem capable of equivalent extraction. DE SMET diffusers can be installed outdoors. Low maintenance costs because of massive design and extremely slow movement of the main conveyor. Low operational costs DE SMET diffusers are completely automated and can be operated by one man per shift. DE SMET will also engineer automation of pre and post diffusion equipment to enable the diffuser operator to control the whole extraction plant. Lubrication costs are negligible. Low power requirements Live steam is not needed.
Vapour of low-pressure steam is used for juice heating in the diffuser. All moving parts are driven by electric motors (estimates of steam and power requirements are given in the tables hereafter). Very wide capacity range DE SMET diffusers can operate without modifications and without loss of efficiency from 30 % under to 10 % over nominal capacity. By varying the bed height and conveyor speed, the capacity range may be extended even more. The design of the diffuser is such that unforeseen increases in capacity may, to a certain extent, be met by the addition of washing stages to existing diffusers.
Conversion from bagasse to cane diffuser DE SMET diffusers for a given capacity are designed from standard sections so that a bagasse diffuser can be lengthened into a cane diffuser when the pre-extraction mill hads to be scrapped. Mechanical reliability Mechanically DE SMET cane diffusers are similar to the beet diffusers. They therefore benefit from well over thirty years of experience under arduous conditions in the beet sugar industry. Absence of fermentation The diffusers have been designed to eliminate all static zones where fermentation could develop.
The return span of the diffuser conveyor is washed at every cycle to prevent contamination of the feed by pieces of bagasse sticking to the screen. The diffuser is fitted for pH control and for operation at optimum temperature. In case of long stops or for unforeseen contaminations, equipment is provided for the addition of anti-septics. Bagasse discharge is by gravity at the tail end of the diffuser. A special scraper is provided to even out the flow of bagasse and provide a continuous feed to the dewatering mills. The diffuser can be completely discharged for long stops and does not have to be cleaned manually.
Juice quality is better than with conventional milling. Systematic clarification of last mill juice enables removal of impurities early in the process and contributes towards the production of juices which are easy to clarify and which present no problems in the boiling house. Typical cane diffusion plant lay-out DE SMET – BAGASSE DIFFUSERS TYPE TS 20C 25C 30C 35C 40C 45C 50C 55C 60C 65C 70C 75C 80C 85C 90C 95C 100C 115C NOMINAL CAPACITY METRIC TONS/DAY FROM 2,000 TO 20,000 PRINCIPAL OVERALL WIDTH M WIDTH FT LENGTH 2. 8 3. 3 4. 2 4. 7 5. 2 5. 7 6. 2 6. 7. 2 7. 7 8. 2 8. 7 9. 2 9. 7 10. 9 11. 4 11. 9 9. 2 10. 7 13. 8 15. 4 17. 0 18. 7 19. 6 22. 0 23. 6 25. 3 26. 9 28. 6 30. 2 31. 8 35. 7 37. 4 39. 0 FROM 35. 8 M – 118 FT TO 51 M – 168 FT 13. 4 44. 0 DIMENSIONS HEIGHT ABOUT 8 M – 25 FT INSTALLED POWER AT FULL CAPACITY APPROX. 100 HP/1,000 TONS/DAY APPROX. 90 HP/1,000 TONS/DAY STEAM KG/TON CONSUMPTION OF CANE 80 – 85 Heat economy Every precaution has been taken to reduce to a minimum the calorific requirements of the process. All heaters are of the type used for mixed juice heating in sugar factories.
The diffuser is completely enclosed and insulated. Experience Acquired in more than 15 different countries, experience which has included the diffusion of: frozen cane, mechanically harvested cane, dirty cane, low fibre cane, burnt cane and even clean cane! Experience also in processing diffusion juices by defecation, sulphitation, carbonation and sugar factories which refine their own raw sugar. Typical cane TN diffusion plant lay-out DE SMET – CANE DIFFUSERS TYPE TN 20C 25C 30C 35C 40C 45C 50C 55C 60C 65C 70C 75C 80C 85C 90C 95C 100C 115C NOMINAL CAPACITY METRIC TONS/DAY
FROM 2,000 TO 15,000 PRINCIPAL OVERALL WIDTH M WIDTH FT LENGTH 2. 8 3. 3 4. 2 4. 7 5. 2 5. 7 6. 2 6. 7 7. 2 7. 7 8. 2 8. 7 9. 2 9. 7 10. 9 11. 4 11. 9 9. 2 10. 7 13. 8 15. 4 17. 0 18. 7 19. 6 22. 0 23. 6 25. 3 26. 9 28. 6 30. 2 31. 8 35. 7 37. 4 39. 0 FROM 48. 3 M – 158 FT TO 61 M – 200 FT 13. 4 44. 0 DIMENSIONS HEIGHT ABOUT 8 M – 25 FT INSTALLED POWER AT FULL CAPACITY APPROX. 110 HP/1,000 TONS/DAY APPROX. 100 HP/1,000 TONS/DAY STEAM KG/TON CONSUMPTION OF CANE 80 – 85 SOME OF THE DE SMET SUGAR CANE DIFFUSERS WHICH HAVE BEEN SUPPLIED TO SUGAR FACTORIES ON MANY CONTINENTS ARE: 007 2005 2003 1996 1995 1991 1990 1990 1989 1983 1979 1971 1970 Zambia Sugar Co. Ltd Nakambala Factory AlMoiz Industries – Lahore Azucar Guarani S. A. – Usina Cruz Alta Sucrerie Bourbon-Tay Ninh Ltee The Andhra Sugar Ltd (3rd Plant), Tanaku Sugar Corporation of Malawi Fiji Sugar Corporation Ltd. Lautoka Industrielle Sucriere de Bourbon, Bois Rouge Umfolozi Coop. Sugar Planters Ltd Ubombo Ranches Ltd. Big Bend Dwangwa Sugar Corporation, Limbe Corp. Boliviana de Fomento, Guabira Nicaragua Sugar Estates Ltd. , San Antonio Zambia Pakistan Brazil Vietnam India Malawi Fiji Reunion ,400 tcd 4,000 tbd 8,000 tcd 12,000 tcd 8,800 tcd 4,200 tcd 7,200 tcd 6,800 tcd 7,800 tcd South Africa 7,200 tcd Swaziland Malawi Bolivia Nicaragua 4,800 tcd 3,600 tcd 4,000 tcd 8,000 tcd Lifting screw drives Diffuser under construction Zambia Sugar Co. Ltd Nakambala Factory Zambia AlMoiz Industries Lahore Pakistan Acucar Guarani Cruz Alta Sugar Plant Brazil Bourbon-Tay Nihn Sugar plant Vietnam Andhra Sugar Ltd India Fiji Sugar Corp. Ltd Lautoka, Fiji DE SMET ENGINEERS & CONTRACTORS has been created in 1990 by the De Smet Group with the intention to have an organisation totally dedicated to large rojects, extending its expertise to process auxiliaries, site construction activities and project management. Oils & Fats as well as Sugar have been the core of DE SMET ENGINEERS & CONTRACTORS’ field of activity. A major diversification to Biofuels and Bioenergy has now taken place, based on a worldwide competence in project management acquired over the years. DE SMET ENGINEERS & CONTRACTORS is not only equipment supplier, but also plant supplier and contract manager. It has developed the Full Responsibility Concept, based on a comprehensive range of multi-disciplinary resources.
From the initial study to vocational training, DE SMET ENGINEERS & CONTRACTORS has the ability and skill to successfully complete large turnkey projects, even on a greenfield site, all within the contractual budget and delivery time, whether on its own or in association with other companies. DE SMET s. A. ENGINEERS & CONTRACTORS Office Park Nysdam 92 Avenue Reine Astrid B-1310 La Hulpe – Belgium Tel. : 32 (0)2 634 25 00 – Fax : 32 (0)2 634 25 25 E-mail : info@dsengineers. com https://www. dsengineers. com 2010-04-22
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