The project is designing and implementing e-procurement on business-to-business transactions, it first identifies current procurement process and explores how to implement procurement that involves mainstay drivers and problems of e-procurement system usage and investigate the effect on the performance of the Ministry in terms of e-government and transparency in the Federal Ministry of Science and technology. The solution essentially involves in creating all the requirement details/ specs, of a tender to be floated electronically, in parameterized form; so that subsequent evaluation & comparative chart preparation exercises could be automated to a large extent. The term procurement can be referred to as the buying of tangible and intangible merchandise for organizations which can be executed through agency or company. Procurement is not an event. It is a process and signifies a continuing relationship between the government and its suppliers. Procurements are always taken as an important task in the government environment and always handled in a strictly secured and controlled manner (Dunleavy, 1994). According to Nwokak, et al. (2007) procurement is also one of the sectors that remains insulated against any process improvements. At the moment, it is been recognized world over, that Information and Communication Technology (ICT) can eliminate the existing bureaucratic problems and make the government’s performance more resourceful, easily reached and clear as crystal, besides being cost-effective. The procurement process in the Ministry of science and technology (www.fmst.gov.ng)is a complex process that starts and ends in a cycle. Procurement cycle starts from Raising of the requirements for an item or a service and ends only after settlement of supplier payments as shown in the diagram below.
Electronic Procurement can describe as purchasing order that release a communication over the internet through authorized internet seller catalogue. E-procurement is the electronic purchase of goods and services for an organization; Turban et al. (2006) from an easy phrase, electronic purchase can be described as procedure to purchase tangible and intangible merchandise by the use of internet for a company or institution. For example, within Nigeria, the majority of companies in the petroleum Industries, United Parcel Service, Plc.(Ups) Federal Express Plc (Fedex), communication industries etc are some of the few organizations that practice e-procurement in material purchase (Nwokak et al, 2009). The reason is so, because the industries have advanced and developed their technology usage of e-procurement keeping up with the changes in the business environment as it pertains to information and technology. Furthermore, electronic procurement or merchant trade is the business-to-consumer (B2C) or company-to-company (C2C) acquisition as well as trade of tangible and intangible goods by electronic means and various information and network system, like the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) and Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) (Nwokak et al, 2009). Electronic procurement systems permit competent and valid user to search for buyer or seller of tangible as well as intangible merchandise. No matter which method, buyer or seller may as well state the outlay and request for bidding. Dealings can then be welcomed.
How it works
Commonly available modes for effecting EMD/ Fee/ other payments electronically, from within a software Application, are: –
The purchasing of merchandise, works, and services has a main effect on the efficient execution of an assignment. To a great degree the quality, cost, and judicious achievement of a task determined on the supervision and managing of purchase of materials needed. Use of articulated policy and practice, considered by unbiased, just, and transparent measures, is vital, not only to create reliable and steady market that will be capable to catch the fancy of competent contractor and supplier, but also to uphold the paradigm of accountability and the cost-efficient use of civic treasury. The importance of procurement in delivering key aims and mission of the ministry, and as a result the procurement of merchandise, facility and services is of strategic significance to the Ministry:
For years, improvement to purchase has been attempted, frequently by means of information technology. The concrete opportunity for development today lies in the use of e-procurement, the electronic process of obtaining goods and services for an organization Nwokak et al, (2009). They further to ascertain that by automation and reformation the thorough and arduous routine of obtain task, purchase professional will have the opportunity to pay more attention, on other tactical purchase, in order to achieve these set of objectives:
The various benefits are listed below
Electronic purchase enable purchaser to process transaction through internet. For instance, an internet-base transacts means through which things can be chosen mostly from an identified catalogues and submit for authorization. The device can be connected in same direction of the backside part of ERP structure for access, imbursement of invoice, and arrangement of organization information. Electronic procedures (together with computerization of p-card purchase) lead to immense period saving as well as effectiveness owing to:
A lot of instances in a company, conformity and unconventional expenditure is an important problem – not for the reason that workers intentionally procure outside of favoured arrangements, but to a certain extent through be short of knowledge. Electronic purchases address this from side to side apparatus such as catalogues and benchmark order procedures and authorized process. Conformity will be achieved owing to:
This statement analyze the important of data’s cost centre, commodity codes, etc. is hard coded in opposition to the user significantly reduce code error and provide extremely exhaustive as well as effortlessly available data. This is very important information to make the rule of the monetary revenue of tactical source. A successful e-procurement performance will give high value, complete management information and will reverse the need for data warehousing or resource heavy data mining, by David Eakin (2002). The capability to display to your supplier that you are using e-procurement as an apparatus to make sure final user do respect their union significance will augment ability to bargain along the prices through:
These include the capacity to improve management of business cash flow as well as control the proficient imbursement of supplier because of the further rationalized procurement procedures giving additional suitable and precise information to the accounts payable department. Possible benefit includes limited staff a “hard” benefit only if improvement can bring about head count decrease) and brings down expenditure on postages as well as stationeries. Throughout negotiations the procurement manager can further credibly guarantee the supplier a level of prompt payment, which was not possible prior to e-procurement. David Eakin (2002). However, the electronic invoice benefit is frequently unexamined and uncared for.
For high-value items, purchasing personal in the Ministry spends most of their work period on procurement activities. These functions involve developing relationship with considered supplier, negotiating prices as well as terms, qualifying supplier, and bringing out suppliers certification as well as evaluation. When buyer is occupied in the midst of information of lesser things (especially MROs), they have less period to adequately engage in the purchase of the high – value item. Other problems can happen in traditional purchase. These include delay in paying a lot for hasten order. Purchase inadequacy is nonconformist exchange, (impromptu procurements of merchandise needed hurriedly, unintentionally at non-pre-negotiated soaring price. The conventional purchase procedure, as discuss over, is therefore ineffective. In other to avoid a repeat of this event, the ministry needs to re-engineer the process of purchasing, by carrying out of new purchasing models in general, through the introduction of electronic purchase. From this stage, we shall gaze at what e-procurement means in B2B market. The issues are summarized below:
E-government procurement is the collaborative purchase of tangible and intangible merchandise by the civic division using electronic methods at every stage ensuring transparency and efficiency. Ideally, it covers the full ‘life cycle of procurement’. The intention is to automate, possibly, the whole purchasing processes, along with tender offer submission as well as payment from supplier; in an automated computerized concurrent situation .E-procurement could resolve many of the constraints/ delays of traditional procurement. In David Eakin (2002).Summary, e-Procurement is the business-to-business buying and selling of supplies and services online. The e-procurement helps both the buyers and the suppliers to decrease the cycle time, needless paper work, waiting in long queues and at the same time maintain the simplicity in the entire process. David Eakin, (February, 2003). Which are to:-
Before looking for an e-Procurement solution, a relook on existing procurement procedures/ practices is essential: –
Probing for seller so as to get and contrast supplier and product occasionally can be in reality awfully time-consuming and expensive. Most Ministries as a way out invite sellers to fulfill orders and create market place. Procurement is used to refer to the purchase of goods and services for an organization, (Martin et. al., 2001). Federal Ministry of Science and Technology (FMST) are among of the important parastatals of the Federal Government. The major term of office is providing access to technology for the Majority of Nigerian Populace. The ministry is made up of 8 (eight) departments. The Department of Administration and Supply within the Ministry is responsible for:
The department is therefore responsible for procurement of goods and services in the Ministry.
According to Nwokak et al, (2009) different methods are employed to procure goods and services by companies depending on what and where they buy, the quantities needed, how much money is involved, and more. They further mentioned some important procurements method to comprise the listed below:
Procurement cycle starts from Raising of the requirements for an item or a service and ends only after settlement of supplier payments. By Category of Goods & Services
By Nature of Procurement
By Size / Volume of procurement
By Portfolio of services needed
The traditional procurement process has been widely criticized as an ineffective procurement method because it often involves time and cost overrun (Dunleavy, 1994). Yet the method is still being widely used in Nigeria most especially for the procurement in Ministry of Science and technology.
According to Nwokak et al (2009) precisely 80% of organizations’ purchase item, especially for Maintenances, Repairs as well as Operating items (MROs), constitutes 20- 25 percent of the total purchasing values. Furthermore, Nwokak; Ozuru&Ugoji (2009) affirmed that a portion of corporate buyers’ time is spent on non-value-added activities such data entry, correcting errors in paper work, expediting delivery or solving quality problems. For high-value items, purchasing personal spend a great deal of time and effort on procurement activities. These activities include qualifying suppliers, negotiating prices and terms, building rapport with strategic suppliers, as well as carrying out supplier evaluation and certification (Nwokak et al, 2009). If buyers are busy with details of the smaller items (usually MROs), they do not have enough time to properly deal with the purchase of the high -value items. Other inefficiencies also may occur in conventional procurement. These range from delays to paying too much for rush orders. Procurement inefficiency is maverick buying, (unplanned purchase of items needed quickly, often at non-pre-negotiated high prices. The traditional procurement process, as discussed above, often is therefore inefficient (Mills, 1996). In order to correct this situation, the ministry needs to reengineer their procurement systems, implementation of new purchasing models and in particular, introduce e-procurement. At this juncture, we will look at what e-procurement is in a B2B marketplace.
Not until June 2008 was the procurement bill recently signed into law, previously there was no Federal or state law governing the practice of public procurement in Nigeria. With the advent of the new law, a number of challenges with regards to transparency, accountability and good governance in the area of contracts and procurement of supplies and services by government. In Nigeria it is pertinent to note that e-procurement is not prominently featured in law, this project sets out to make e-procurement prominently featured. With the advent of digital technology and globalisation, Nigeria as a third world country needs to be aware of the challenges and opportunities with regards to the e-procurement process. Furthermore, this project seeks to classify the meaning as well as the benefits of the E-procurement process in Nigeria. This project will also highlight the challenges in transforming Nigeria into a transparent and corrupt-free business environment and also ways of overcoming the challenges of adopting e-procurement in Nigeria. (E-Public Procurement in Nigeria: Some Lessons from EU, 2009)
E-procurement platform transacts confidential procurement data and is exposed to several security threats. Agencies world over face threats to their online e-procurement and usually desist from sending sensitive information over the Internet for security reasons. The growing number of cyber crimes has added doubts regarding the reliability of the Internet. Security measures such as authentication and encryption are therefore employed while passing sensitive information between companies. Another major issue concerning e-procurement is the type of goods that are procured through the online medium. Companies usually prefer to source smaller, inexpensive goods such as office stationery (Miller, 2006). Larger complex orders that usually take weeks or months for negotiation are done in the traditional manner but this can be addressed by employing a combination of security features and security best practices which result in reduced threat of data loss, leakage or manipulation. Security and secrecy of tender data is of paramount importance as the portal handles sensitive procurement transactions of departments and has foreseen the security concerns. Security mechanisms provide a secure communication interface, mainly for the exchange of documents between procurement authorities and Economic Operators. Standards constituting adequate and acceptable security need to be provided for the implementation of services during each stage of the procurement process.
Security is one of the major factors restricting the growth of e-procurement. Without proper security measures this could lead to the loss or corruption of sensitive information on e-procurement. Security breach could also lead to fraud and financial loss, also includes misappropriation of funds and revealing of sensitive information (The Economist, 1995). This project outlines various security issues faced by e-procurement in Nigeria and possible solutions that can be implemented to reduce such risk. (NATIONAL E-PROCUREMENT PROJECT SUPPLEMENTARY GUIDANCE NOTES, 2004) The major objectives measured for the creation of a safe environment include the following:
Accordingly, following stringent security measures are already implemented in the system to ensure that transactions on e-procurement portal happen in the most secured manner:
These two functional requirements are related to the process for registering users to the e-procurement system, as well as for identifying users when they access the e-procurement system. The technical implementation followed for these two functional requirements are closely related.
Security of e-procurement system is essentially an amalgamated output of Security of Infrastructure, Application and Management. Security is importance because without proper security measures loss or corruption of sensitive information can occur. Security breach could also lead to fraud and financial loss, misappropriation of funds and revealing of sensitive information Non-repudiation. Security involves Authentication, Authorisation, Confidentiality, and Integrity. Security is necessary to ensure safety of the data, users information and minimize issues already highlight above. Security can be implemented in hardware and Software, and on individuals using Policies.
The prerequisites for e-procurement in the Ministry are the study of the functions and structures of the individuals or groups responsible for the procurement in Ministry. A survey was used to map current practices of procurement and collect data on the antecedents and consequences of e-procurement method. A questionnaire was sent to all Staff of the Ministry Science and technology and Suppliers. A total of 30 usable questionnaires were completed and returned for a response rate of approximately 65.7%. Measuring the impact of the implementation of the e-procurement solution, various variables such as adaptability, relationship with suppliers, change in the range of suppliers, participation of suppliers, impact on small and medium suppliers, change in transparency, human interface factor, change in cost-savings to both government and suppliers, speed of implementation of the projects constituted the basis for data collection. The data was collected, classified, tabulated and analyzed. The number of transactions completed, value of the transactions i.e. Estimated Contract Value (ECV), percentage of discount given to the government, average bids per tender, average tender evaluation time, number and value of electronic tenders completed in all the departments, and so on, were studied.
Primary data refers to the information being collected which originated from sources obtained from the author own analysis. Example of primary data is results collected from the questionnaires, interview, observations, sampling and etc. During the phase 1 and phase 2 of the progress of the research paper, which consists of literature review, scope and limitations of the project and project methodology, 30 % of the information is from primary data where the data being gathered are from the author own analysis. This is due to the reason that most of the information gathered in literature review is from the reference books, magazines, journals and newspapers. The author’s own perception only occupies a very limited percentage in phase 1 of the project. From the delivery of research methodology and project scope and limitations, 80% of the data is primary data because the information obtained is from the author’s own experiences throughout the project. From the analysis of the author, the author observed every problems or limitations she faced and documents the findings inside the project. However, during the phase 3 and phase 4 of the research paper which contains the analysis section where 90% of the data being collected are from primary data because results would be collected from the conduction of questionnaires and interview to gain the users perceptions and opinions for the suggested solutions. According to Pabedinskaite & Elskyte in the Basic of Research conducted at Vilnius Gediminas University, said that questionnaires are an inexpensive way to gather data from a potentially large number of respondents. Often they are the only feasible way to reach a number of reviewers large enough to allow statistically analysis of the results. A well-designed questionnaire that is used effectively can gather information on both the overall performance of the test system as well as information on specific components of the system. If the questionnaire includes demographic questions on the participants, they can be used to correlate performance and satisfaction with the test system among different groups of users. Pabedinskaite & Elskyte, (2007)
Secondary data refers to the information collected from secondary sources such as books, journals, newspaper, internet sources and etc which is not collected from the research methodology being conducted by the author. In the literature review chapter, 70% of the information is gained from the secondary data because the author needs a lot of information from secondary sources as a reference to produce the delivery. On another hand, reference about how to design a good screen design is obtained from the secondary sources as well which are from reference books and internet sources.
From interviews and multiple discussions done with the staff of the Ministry, it was found that the Ministry faces multiple problems during procurement. Deficiencies in the manual procurement process were analyzed and are enumerated below.
A lot of the staff working in the Ministry find the traditional method of procurement very tedious, as it requires a lot of filing of papers from various company tenders. The traditional process includes:
For this reasons the Ministry of Science and Technology would require an E-procurement system in order to make their procurement process more transparent, cost effective and efficient. About 40% of the respondents believe there is no strong policy that translates into regulations, guidelines on Procurement which are made available to the supplier and the buyer. 20% of the respondents believe that the policies are not clear and should not be implemented, while another 20% believe that it has totally been changed from the previous policies. 70% of the respondents agree that procurement planning to measure the feasibility of risk of proposals approved by the ministry. 10% of respondents feel the planning details are not carried out properly. 10% believe the feasibility conducted is not valid, while 10% feel there is no feasibility carried out. All the respondents are in agreement that there is no strategy implemented to improve the procurement process in the Ministry. 70% of respondents believe that a model for developing and supporting E-procurement system should be developed. While 30% are not confident that it will be implemented effectively. With an online procurement system 80% of the respondents want information like tenders made available to the public. While 20% don’t really care. All the respondents would like the details e.g. price of contracts awarded to the companies to be made available for public view. All the respondents would like the information to be available for free 80% of the respondents would like the details of the various registered companies made available to the public for free, while 20% don’t mind paying a fee. All the respondents would like to be able to download electronic documents made available for users All the respondents agree that the system requires some confidentiality of information. In other words it should be secure. All the respondents want the system to be connected to other office system like asset management or finance. 80% of the respondents would prefer that no propriety hardware or software be a prerequisite for the suppliers to access the system, except the use of internet, 20% don’t care.
After completing this chapter, the author now has an in depth understanding on procurement problems in the Ministry and is better equipped to apply solutions to problems of the Ministry in the coming chapters.
While the use of in depth case studies of e-Procurement in the Ministry would ideally have suited our purpose, time and financial restrictions limited our study to use multiple case studies by literature survey to identify major cases in order to allow us to come up with a set of solutions.
The author is limited by the short time constraint where every phase of the project needs to be completed on time and submitted to the supervisor. Procurement process usually takes a long time between 90 to 150 days but during the time, the project phase does not grant the author enough time to conduct full observation.
Financial is also another limitation so not enough funds to travel round and conduct research on the prizes of items and services outside the Ministry. Also visitation of the Ministry daily for observation of procurement by the author incurred huge cost and limited the study to specific days where important decision would be taken.
E-procurement is the new technology and not yet being documented in books, which caused the author to find it difficult to find any books regarding to the e-procurement technology. The author also having problems in searching for the criteria to measure suitability because there is no common criterion can be used for the measurements. Thus, different books have its own criteria to follow to determine the suitability.
The author gained the information on e-procurement technology. By carrying out this research method, the author can collect a lot of useful information that relates to the project topic. Besides that, the author uses several searches engines to search for the necessary information such as YAHOO, GOOGLE, BING and others. There might be someone who does not have much experience and may deliver the wrong information or interpretation to the end-users. Due to this problem encountered, the author tries to search for information from the international journal sites. Besides the research paper, the author also need to complete other projects or assignments from other subjects within the short time frame, the author need to gather sufficient information from other sources in order to deliver the quality work for the research paper. Interview enabled face-to-face and direct interaction between the author and the interviewee so that the fact from the interview can be jotted down in that time to maintain accuracy of data.
By doing this project, the author chooses to limit the project scope to identify whether e-procurement would bring about efficiency and transparency in ministry of Science and Technology. In order to gather feedback from public perceptions, the sample sizes of questionnaire are limited to 30 samples because if sample size less than 10, the results collected might not be accurate to be documented as findings. However, the author found that sample size more than 30 would create difficulty and complexity in analysis part of the research paper. The author would only prefer questionnaires and interview are chosen because identification of users’ perceptions are important for determine which technology are appropriate to act as strategic promotion strategy. The author needs to ensure that all the distributed questionnaires must be collected back. Interview is needed because opinions from a specific branded company about what are the steps they would take if they want to adopt the most appropriate technology. The most appropriate technology would be determined by conducting questionnaire. Their opinions enabled the author to produce the intended framework that is applicable to all Ministries. On the other hand, interview is needed in order to evaluate the framework designed by the author. The author had performed a very simple experimentation in order to determine and compare the time of connectivity between computer and mobile to Internet. Observation is not the author’s choice due to the reason that observation is not appropriate to be used to measure e-procurement Sometimes, the data collected from the observation might be wrong without conducting the questionnaires and the author would found that what the author see might not be true for the analysis from just observing the situation or examples provided.
The scenario e-procurement in Ministry of Science and technology shows that in order to tap the full potential of e-procurement, an interaction of the different applications is needed, making the presented ‘enabling technologies’ such as bar coding systems and EAI important pieces of the overall architecture. Nevertheless, significant benefits can also be achieved by gradually implementing a respective system. However, from the point of view of sustainable cost-savings, it is arguable why a Ministry has to manage all the analyzed tasks on its own (istart, 2009A). In future, most benefits in supply management will certainly emerge through the centralization of procurement and logistics by intensification of the collaboration between the Ministry (e.g. buying syndicates) and through outsourcing of certain activities to the supplier (e.g. vendor managed inventories). However, this will cause new problems and will need advanced knowledge of both, managerial and technical nature. Therefore the authoris of the opinion that major organizational changes are needed in the future.
The solution that is proposed for Ministry is to develop an electronic procurement web site. However, before deciding on a solution, it is important to seriously evaluate the tools and techniques to use before actually adopting it0 The tools available will go a long way in assisting the author to determine which type of solution to provide. The tools include but not limited to Visual Studio 2010 beta 1, .net 3.5,C#, ASP 4.Net, PHP, AJAX, SQL azure Server, the application will be deployed on Windows Azure.
Microsoft’s dynamic Server Pages is a server-side technology for dynamically-generated web pages that is sold as an addition to Internet Information Server and Personal Web Server and captures many functionalities normally required by web developers into objects to give them easy to access. msdn, (2005).
ASP scripts help developers to ward off from simple delivery problems keeping in mind what the users want since it depends on the server instead of the user and all the work done before the HTML is sent to the browser. ASP is a sort of interpreted technology. The system is from the web server. If a web page is required, the ASP runtime loads the system into the memory, transforming it, and then translates it into machine language (binary language) enabling the machine to understand. Related links can be loaded by integrating server-side scripting code (including database access) with HTML and client-side code. Programming ASP websites is made less difficult by a variety of built-in objects, such as a cookie-based session object that maintain variables from page to page. There are two major benefits to ASP, the first is security and the second is its compatibility with mobile devices such as phones and PDA’s.
Microsoft SQL Azure Database is a cloud-based relational database service built on SQL Server technologies. It provides a highly available, scalable, multi-tenant database service hosted by Microsoft in the cloud. SQL Azure Database helps to ease provisioning and deployment of multiple databases. Developers do not have to install, setup, and repair or manage any software. High availability and fault tolerance is built-in and no physical administration is required msdn, (2005).
Visual studio.Net is a programming environment that provides advanced development tools, which include, database functionality, debugging features, and various innovative features creating gutting edge applications across a variety of platforms. Visual studio enables us to use the client-side and server-side frameworks to easily build client-centric web applications that integrate with the data provider. Visual Studio includes several programming languages ASP.NET, Visual Basic, Visual C++ and Visual C# (Tech Target,2009).
Use .NET Compact Framework to build applications for Windows CE-based devices. The Web page designer in Visual Studio2010 has been enhanced for greater CSS compatibility, includes additional support for HTML and ASP.NET mark-up snippets, and features a redesigned version of IntelliSense for Java Script. Visual Studio2010 includes technologies let you seamlessly deploy Web applications. One of these technologies is the IIS Web Deployment Tool. Devon, (2009).Web deployment features in Visual Studio2010 include the following major areas:
The Main principle of the UML is to communicate the Object orientation, where it describes everything in terms of objects, and the relationship between these objects, and the way objects respond to events or activities, we see the graphical representation of how these objects are deployed.
Is mainly used for preparation of a system and interacting objects for the reason of solving problems with your software. Object Oriented Design contains an item which captures data and procedures grouped together indicating an entity. This follows the description of the class based subset of object oriented design, which excludes approaches where objects are not obtained by the instance of a class but by the prototype of other objects.
Is a process that deals with object oriented development in the analysis and design phase. It illustrates the static relationship between classes and objects in a system. The object model describes the structure of objects in the system their identity, their relationship to other attributes, objects and their operations. The object model shows the real-time environment and how the system interacts or is divided in the overall decomposition of the system. It is the graphical representation of class diagrams containing object classes and their relationships.
Is a word that can be used to model systems, in order to improve readability. It captures the capability of a system using notations. UML is an object oriented analysis and design language. The Unified Modelling Language is a diagram language for specifying, constructing, and documenting the artefacts of systems. You can use UML with all processes, all through the development of a lifecycle, across various performance technologies. Throughout the years there have been insignificant modifications made to the language.
according to V. Ryan ‘Rich( 2001-2009) Picture is the first stage in the design process, when you start designing the theme is placed in the centre of the page and link words are positioned around it. This can be seen on the example below, a rich picture for the theme Clock Design. These link words should be related to the centre theme and they will help you think of points that you must consider when trying to solve the design problem. V. Ryan (2001-2009) The Diagram below shows the activities of the actors of the system, the activities of the admin and the user is displayed in this picture as it depicts the real life scenario.
Use case are used in analyzing a project in order to identify system functionality that separate the system into actors and use cases. Actors represent roles that can or are played by users of the system. These users can be humans or computers. Use case describes the behaviour of the system when one of these actors sends a particular stimulus. It describes the nature of the stimulus that triggers the use case; the inputs from and outputs to other actors, and the behaviour that transfer the inputs to outputs. Engineering Notebook, (1998). In E-procurement, the role of the user is to sign in or sign up; if he or she is not signed in they would only have access to public available information. Furthermore he or she is limited to certain functionalities like calling for tender or tendering a project, the user can only sign up and view tenders available. Whereas a registered Company user can register and submit tenders and the admin can add or delete a project and send tenders. (Functional requirements for conducting Electronic Public Procurement under the EU framework, January 2005)
A Use case description is a description of a system’s behaviour as it responds to a request that originates from outside of that system. In other words, a use case describes “who” can do “what” with the system in question. The use case technique is used to capture a system’s behavioural requirements by detailing scenario-driven threads through the functional requirements.
Activity diagram is a UML diagram that is used to model a process. It models the actions or behaviours that are performed by the system, the situation which coordinate the actions, the order in which they are carried out in a specific fashion. Activity Diagram is the graphical representation of the activities and actions of the various actors as they are used to show the overall flow. Activity diagram is dynamic showing the activity and event as the actor performs a function. Below are the diagrams showing the flow of the proposed system
The Ideal model is developed during the investigation phase of the development of a life cycle and it describes an ideal system that would complete the entire requirement identified by the use case. It shows the various activities of the system and the actors that out the command for the activities to be executed.
The diagram above is a database design depicting E-procurement system. The database design produces a detailed model of the database; it also describes parts of the design of an overall database system. A perfect database design contains attributes for each entity. It is the logical design of the database structure where all the data or information of the system is stored. However, database design is not just used for designing or storing data alone, but it can also be used to create forms and queries used as part of the overall database application.
Class diagram depict the classes of the system, the relationship between them, and the operations and attributes in the class. It is a graphical representation used in object oriented design to show the classes of objects in the system.
Storyboard is a graphical representation of how the system interface will be. It gives the user a picture of how the interface will be designed.
This chapter is very important as it shows the different achievements and issues encountered by the author. The author will document how system functions by giving a complete account of all the software installed, and how the various coding are implemented to make it a functioning system. The author will show various coding that have been implemented for the functions of the interface. The problems and solutions proffered during the development of the system will also be discussed.
During the installation of SQL server management studio 2008, the author had some difficulties as she found that it was not compatible with Microsoft Visual studio 2008. Visual Studio 2008 could only connect with the SQL server management studio 2005. The author had then had to downgrade the computer operating system form Windows 7 to Vista Basic in order SQL server 2005 to run.
The installation of the software used in developing the system is paramount. The author chose Microsoft Visual studio 2008 and SQL server management studio 2005 to develop the system. In order to deploy a fully functional system there are a number of dependencies involved. For instance, .NET based applications require a specific version of the .NET framework and common language runtime to run. In the case of database applications specific versions of the software drivers to connect to the software to the database are required. The author had to purchase these software’s from vendors.
The author had to install the following software: Vista Basic Operating system, Microsoft Visual studio 2008 and SQL server management studio 2005. The system development also required the installation of other necessary software like the System architect used for the drawing of the UML diagrams and the Adobe photo shop used to create the images for the system.
The first software the author installed was the operating system which serves as the platform for which other software will be deployed. The author also installed system architect used in drawing the diagrams. The SQL server management studio 2005 is the system used to create and store the data information which can be retrieved anytime the admin or user performs a function. Microsoft Visual studio 2008 was also installed this software will be used to create the interface of the system and it is here that the various coding will be deployed in order for the system to be functional.
Coding is the process of writing, assembling, and compiling of computer code. The instructions for hardware and software are known as coding.
In this chapter the author will work on testing of the entire system to confirm that the new developed system is free of errors and other programming bugs. The author needs to test and confirm that the system is running and functions as estimated and to ensure that the proposed system is capable of solving the difficulties of the existing system by meeting the user desires and hopes.
Is the method of executing a variety of tests on a system to discover functionality or to identify problems. System testing is regularly required before and after a system is put in place. A series of methodical trials are raised while testing is being accomplished. These trials tell the tester how the system should achieve and where common mistakes may be found. Testers regularly try to “break the system” by putting data that will make the system to malfunction or reoccurrence of incorrect data. Usually system testing is categorized into 2 steps or types, system developers testing and the system user testing. System developer trial is the type of test carried out by the system developer to see whether the system is ready for invention or not, while system user testing is the one being conducted by end the users of the system.
The main purpose of doing this testing is to make sure the proposed does not have any error that will allow it to function properly and also to make the system to be dependability and excellence.
There are many different types or approaches of testing; the author is going to explain some of the types of testing available in testing system functionalities.
Unit testing refers to the end users testing of single units of software system. In object-oriented systems, these units characteristically are classes and approaches. (M. KA¶lling, 2009). The main goal of unit testing is to take the minimum piece of testable software in the application, isolate it from the rest of the code, and control whether it works accurately as end user assume. Every unit is tested individually, before mixing them into components to test the interfaces between modules. Unit testing has confirmed its importance in that a huge ratio of defects is recognized throughout its use. (Microsoft Corporation, 2009)
Integration test is a process whereby software components, hardware components, or both together are joint and tested to assess connections between them. In addition, Integration testing is a reasonable extension of unit testing. In its simplest method, two units that have already been tested are combined into a component and the interface between them is tested. A component, in this sense, refers to an integrated collective of more than one unit. In a realistic scenario, numerous units are combined into components, which are in turn collected into even bigger portions of the program. The idea is to test mixtures of parts and ultimately increase the procedure to test the modules with those of other groups. Mixing testing classifies problems that happen when units are joint together. Through using a test strategy that needs the author to test every unit and confirm the feasibility of every before merging units, in order to know every errors revealed when merging units are linked to the interface between units. This method decreases the amount of opportunities to a far simpler level of examination.
The description of user acceptance testing (UAT) is essentially in its name. Taking each part separately explains what it is about. Coley Consulting, (2001-2007)
A user can be defined as the real trade users, that will have to access the system; usually the employee of an organization, but it could be the providers or clients. They are the only individuals that comprehend accurately what the business is, and how it operates. So they are the only individuals are qualified to check a system to see if it will bring any benefit to the business or organization. Coley Consulting, (2001-2007)
The acceptance method means that its confident to give benefit to the ministry. It does not mean that it only meets the inventive specification as requested. A system might be very well meet of all the conditions requested of it, nevertheless when trying to see how it will work in the business it is realized that it will not give anything positive to the organization, or might even damage the organization. This may be for a number of reasons such as a change in the business or business environment, such as a takeover. Coley Consulting, (2001-2007)
Each time individuals are requested what testing is, many of them say it is to prove the system works. This is the key problem with the way UAT is employed in numerous organizations, as it is incredible to prove any system is accurate. In fact a portion of effort is used, and missed, in trying to get correct responses. Coley Consulting, (2001-2007)
Performance testing is the procedure of defining the rapidity or efficiency of a computer, network, software program or device. This procedure might involve measurable tests completed in a lab, such as determining the response, on which a system works. Qualitative characteristics such as dependability, scalability and interoperability may also be assessed. Performance testing is regularly completed in aggregation with stress testing. Tech Target, (2006-2009)
This test method is to test the system’s module functions. This method is performed under the system function requirement. It is more importance on the system performance process, like how the system implements the function and generates the system invention. The author is applying this method in the proposed system testing, by means of this testing approach, the author will test the code of the function obviously and this method might help to find the errors quicker by testing the system based on the module purpose fundamentals. Sommerville, (2001)
Usability test is a method for confirming that the future users of a system might conduct out the planned tasks competently, successfully and acceptably. Gerry Gaffney, (1999).
Hello, my name is Josephine Ede. I am from the faculty FOCIT, studying business and technology information (BITCU). I am doing system evaluation on my final project a study and development of an E-procurement online system for the federal ministry of science and technology Nigeria, using asp.net. Please kindly, respond to the questionnaires below as your response is very important for the enhancement of the system
20 users evaluated this system, 18 of the 20 users, 18 of them are satisfied with the system while 2 are neutral about the system. This shows that the system satisfies the user in terms of interface. According to the analysed user response on the system, it shows that the user are satisfied with the system interface and found the system easy to use because of the system interface.
20 users evaluated this system, 18 of the 20 users, 18 of them are satisfied with the system while 2 are neutral about the system. This shows that the system satisfies the user in terms of performance. According to the response of the users on the performance of the system, it shows that the users are satisfied with the performance of the system.
20 users evaluated this system, 18 of the 20 users, 18 of them are satisfied with the system while 2 are neutral about the system. This shows that the system satisfies the user in terms of functionality. According to the user response analysis, it shows that the users are satisfied with the system functionality and will love to use the system when it is implemented.
18 out of the 20 evaluated users ticked yes that the system is very informative while 2 of the remaining respondent ticked No that the system is not informative. According to the user response analysis and evaluation, the users are satisfied with the system in terms of information.
18 out of the 20 respondents ticked yes that the system is easy to use while 2 of the remaining users ticked No that the system is not easy to use. According to the analysis done on user response, it shows that they are satisfied with the system because of its easy to use.
18 out of the 20 evaluated users ticked yes that the system is very informative while 2 of the remaining respondent ticked No that the system is not informative. This shows that the system is easy to navigate. According to the user response evaluation, most of the users are satisfied with the system because of its ease of use.
18 out of the 20 evaluated users ticked yes that the system is very informative while 2 of the remaining respondent ticked No that the system is not informative. This shows that the system text font size is visible to the users. According to the user response evaluation, it shows that the system meets the user font requirements. This shows that the users are satisfied with the system text font size because it is easy for system information to be accessed by users.
18 out of the 20 users ticked good that as being happy and satisfied with the entire system. This shows that the users are willing and will love to use the new system when implemented online. According to the user response analysis, it shows that the users are happy with the entire system. It shows that the entire system functionality and features meet the user requirement.
The future enhancement includes: Creating an automated way of evaluating the best company to for the job. Language translator may also be included in the future enhancement. The interface can be changed in the future: in the future a lot of designs may be enhanced in the proposed system, and the text colour can be change in order to meet the customer/users satisfaction at that time, will be able to attract various customers to visit the site more often and to register with the Ministry as suppliers.
This project addresses issues of implementing e-procurement in the ministry of Science and technology Nigeria. Nigeria presently practices the traditional procurement method where tenders are formally submitted and evaluated by the ministry. The Ministry then approves the evaluation based on the authenticity of the company, registered under the ministry, this causes a lot of strife as various companies vie for the tenders often bribing the staff in the ministry in order to be awarded the contract. But with an online E-procurement system the procurement process will be made available to the public in order to promote transparency in the Government.
Designing and implementing e-procurement. (2017, Jun 26).
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