In the article of Black Masculinity: White Supremacy Now and Then, the author argues how black men are ongoing victims of racism and demonization by white supremacist nation, but at the same time, these types of individuals worship and praise black men as athletes (Ferber, 2007). According to the author, the popular representation of the black male athlete is the key component of white supremacy and new-found racism (Ferber, 2007). Throughout the article, the author further examines the significance obsession that white elites have with controlling and “taming” black male bodies (Ferber, 2007). These four common themes demonstrates the construction of black masculinity and helps justifies colorblind racism and injustice inequality: a continued emphasis on Black bodies as inherently aggressive, hypersexual, and violent; concern with taming and controlling Black males; inequality depicted as a product of a deficient Black culture; and the naturalization of White supremacy and White male superiority (Ferber, 2017).
In the article Multicultural Training Intervention to Address American Indian Stereotypes, the authors describe a multicultural training intervention that addresses the issue of American Indian stereotypes perpetuated through the use of mascots by schools and athletic teams (J. Steinfeldt & M. Steinfeldt, 2012). With the help of the Association for Multicultural Counseling and Development assist to bring awareness, knowledge, and skills (J. Steinfeldt & M. Steinfeldt, 2012). This intervention is organized into three components: perspective?taking to facilitate awareness of attitudes about Native?themed mascots, specific knowledge about race?based mascots, and social justice skills that can empower counselors to become advocates for change (J. Steinfeldt & M. Steinfeldt, 2012). This intervention program can provide counseling programs with the necessary knowledge to provide enhanced multicultural training on issues that affect American Indian communities (J. Steinfeldt & M. Steinfeldt, 2012).
The article, The Construction of Black Masculinity relates to chapter 8: Aesthetics because it discusses the reign of minstrelsy and how the whites controlled the dominant image of blacks (Emirbayer & Desmond, 2016). This gave the whites complete satisfaction that the racist fantasy of blackness was under complete white control (Emirbayer & Desmond, 2016). However, in the article, it goes into more descriptive detail of just how the white supremacy group portrayed black individuals, specifically black males. Because black males were known for their prevalent violence and hypersexuality, they were deemed unsuitable for work until they were properly trained by white men while being placed under their discipline and control (Collins, 2005, p. 56). Black men were constantly called the beast, and black women were defined as being hypersexual and denied any rights to their own body, that was probably why they were repeatedly raped by white elites (Feber, 2017). It’s sad to think that once upon a time these labels, such as thug-like rapsters, or welfare queens were given to blacks by white elites in order to control blacks, has not really changed in today’s society (Feber, 2017). One researcher argues that these controlling images of black men and women are so instilled that it’s become common sense truths in many peoples head (Collins, 2005).
The article, Multicultural Training Intervention to address American Indian Stereotypes also relates to chapter 8: aesthetics because the chapter touches on the topic of cultural appropriation. Cultural appropriation takes place when a member of a specific ethnic group adopts a cultural product that is associated with another ethnic group (Emirbayer & Desmond, 2016). The article gives an accurate depiction of how many Americans appropriate American Indian culture, and combat this cultural appropriation through the use of intervention training. The use of the American Indian culture has been shown throughout sports mascots, nicknames, and logos (J. Steinfeldt & M. Steinfeldt, 2012). It’s important for society to realize that any form of cultural appropriation is not right and someone else’s culture should never be exploited for your benefit. I believe this article is very important because provides counselors and advocators the necessary tools and knowledge to help combat these racial stereotypes against American Indians. Individuals even appealed to the American Counseling Association (ACA) in order to stop the use of Native-themed mascots because it creates an environment that is not welcoming and hostile learning environment for American Indian students (J. Steinfeldt & M. Steinfeldt, 2012). Instead of providing a negative image of American Indians schools should be display accurate and respectful images of their culture and history (J. Steinfeldt & M. Steinfeldt, 2012).
To conclude, I picked the first article because I’ve never understood why white individuals are discriminatory against black individuals but love to be at athletic sport events where most if not all of the sport is dominated by African Americans. This just goes to show me that some white individuals like black people when it’s convenient for them. I choose to pick article 2 because I could someway relate to it, not in the sense that I am Indian American, but in the sense that when I was in elementary school, made us participate in activities that definitely appropriated the Indian American culture. These activities included wearing feathers in our hair, wearing war paint on our faces, dressing like American Indians, while all singing songs. Of course, at the time I didn’t know such actions could negatively impact other people, but now that society is progressing and becoming more educated issues such as cultural appropriation is decreasing.
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