Consumer Psychological Impact on Food Packing Design

Consumer Psychological Impact on Food Packing Design Introduction With globalization and advanced manufacturing technologies, there exists increasing competition in today’s global market. In order to win the market, the producers make efforts to make good packing design. According to Golnesa A. and Hamid R. B.,2013 packing played a more important role as a tool to communicate with the consumers and color, design and the size of packing influenced consumers’ purchasing behavior . Panwar, 2004 also pointed out that packing decisions was considered in early marketing plans. Schoell, 1985, stated that packing was key factors which was dominant to successful market and was considered as an important integrative part of the product. The packing of a product was defined as any container in which the product was input and on which product information is communicated with the consumers (Berkowitz et al, 1989). Before making purchase choices, the first thing the consumers saw was packing. Most consumers made the purchase decision at the shelf, just judging by the packing (Ferrell, 1987; Frontiers, 1996). Due to consumer Psychological Impact, packing should be designed to be consistent with the brand, advertise, price and distribution of the product (Lu et al, 2007). The overall features of the packing could present that of the product, which could attract the consumers who have brand preferences. The higher quality the packing communicated, the higher quality the consumers considered the product to be.If the packing was low quality, consumers thought the product itself as “low-quality” product (Silayoi and Speece,2004). Due to consumer Psychological Impact the packing communicated favorable or unfavorable implied meaning. (Underwood et al. (2001). According to Imram, 1999, packing could be a stimulus for consumers to make a buy decision on food product. Imram, 1999, considered that consumers’ perceptions of color were associated with other quality attributes, such as nutrition and ¬‚avor. Underwood et al., 2001 proposed the same view with Imram, 1999. He said that visual imagery on the packing was essential attribute and pictures on the packing were a strategic method to attract consumers’ concern, because pictures were extremely vivid stimuli. Visual packing information might attract consumer attention and promote the consumers to make a buy decision on the content. A well-designed product image might evoke positive association with the product.Research showed that consumers tended to match shape and color of packing, with the characteristics of the product itself (Smets & Overbeeke, 1995).Packing design had become significant factors as in marketing and played an important role in communicating with the customers. Czinkota & Ronkainen (2007) considered that packing design was connected to other variables in marketing. According to Stewart 2004, when designing a new packing, consumers’ buying behavior and consumers’ preferences were should be taken into consideration. Literature review Packing was the enclosing of a physical object. According to Panwar(2004) Packing was the act of containing, protecting and conmunicating the contents. with self-service increasing in supermarket and consumers’ lifestyle changing , packing gradually grew as a tool of sales promotion and stimulus to buying decision. It attracted consumer’s attention. On the other hand, Lamb et al, (2004), argued that packing had four important functions : protecting products, promoting products, Facilitating the storage and use of products and reducing environmental damage, which would be influenced by consumers psychological . When making a purchase decision, perception is rapid, well- designed packing promoted the products. (Rettie & Brewer, 2000). The packing of a product communicated with consumers and attracted consumers’ attention (Garber, 1995; Moers, 2007). According to Becker, Van Rompay, Schifferstein and Galetzka (2010) in the eye of the consumer, packing might be specifically designed. Bloch, 1995 stated that the shape of a product could influence the consumers’ responses. Holbrook & Zirlin, 1985 argued that it might evoke feelings of enjoyment. According to Nussbaum (1993) , the shape of a product was important communicate with consumers. Berkowitz (1987) also supported this view, considering that product shape created an initial impression. Sometimes different shapes could evoke different responses According to Guthrie & Wiener, 1966 and Arnheim, 1974 angular shapes meant to be aggressiveness and confrontation, compared to round shapes. According to Berlyne (1976) , angular shapes was associated with traits that express toughness, energy, and strength.while rounded shapes was associated with traits that express friendliness, approachability, and harmony. Aronoff, Woike & Hyman, 1992 supported that humans associated warmth with round elements and threat with sharp elements. Crowley, 1993 argued that color had effects on consumers’ behivior. It might generate pleasant feelings (Bellizzi & Hite, 1992). According to Birren (1956) , color could effectively be used to communicate certain product characteristics. Moreover, people might match the taste of a dessert with the color of packing (Smets & Overbeeke, 1995), which meant that color could conmmunicate information to consumers. The hue , the saturation and brightness of a color could bring emotional effect on consumers. (Valdez and Mehrabian,1994).Sarah Tornetta,2015, consumers associated colors with meanings. Furthermore packing in similar colors might attract attention of the consumers who seek the products by brand or product category. Novel colors might attract customers who prefer to novelty . (Kauppinen-Räisänen et al. 2010). Pinya Silayoi&Mark Speece,2007, argued that packing size also was a crucial factor. According to Raghubir and Krishna, 1999, consumers used packing size to make volume judgments. In General, consumers considered more elongated packing to be larger. Different packing sizes potentially attracted consumers attention with the low price (Prendergast and Marr,1997). When product quality was same or difficult to determine, consumers tended to buy the one in small packing size .Silayoi et al. 2007 stated that packing sizes depended on the different involvement levels. Generally, the low involvement food products have reduced packing with a low price. He also supported that the elongated shape with appropriate size resulted in the consumers’ thinking of the packing having larger product volume and with high cost. According to Coulson, 2000, packing communicated product information with consumers, product information itself impacted on consumers’ decisions. Producers tended to highlight the importance of labeling, allowing consumers to consider choosing cautiously the alternatives .However, too much information packing information, with small fonts could create confusion. Mitchell and Papavassiliou (1999) proposed that producers choose fewer alternative brands and evaluate fewer attributes. Packing design played a critical role in the purchasing decision. Murphy (1997) indicated the importance of packing design and its influences on Consumers’ behavior. The packing design attract consumers’ examination of the product. The packing design were involved in the consumers’intent to select and purchase the products. (Holmes et al. 2012, p. 110.). According to Stewart 2004, when the consumers need decide which to buy among the products they might purchase, packaging would influenced the buying decision. Silayoi and Speece (2007) proposed that both producers and designers need consider consumers’ past experiences and needs; understand how packing design attracted customers’ attention; and evaluate packing design.. ResearchQuestion Gaafar M. A. and Ra’id S. A. 2013 ‘s research question was whether packing influenced consumer’s perception of product Liza Becker, 2009 ‘s research question was the following: Can packing design have an effect on consumers’buying decision? What kind of packing make people draw inferences about the product, attributes, or content? Sarah Tornetta,2015, ‘s research question was how the psychology of color of packing influenced purchasing behavior. Polyakova Ksenia,2013 ‘s research question was the following How does the packing influence on the consumer buying behavior? How does consumer perceive the packing itself? Methodology Gaafar M. A. and Ra’id S. A. 2013 carried out a questionnaire, in which 547 respondents was sampled ,comprising 26 items and the data collecting in the questionnaire were analyzed by several statistical techniques eg. multiple regression analysis, to test the hypotheses. Questionnaire was also used by Liza Becker, 2009, which was carried out via an online. But Liza Becker, 2009 adopted different analysis method and what he used was an ANOVA analysis. Besides, Polyakova Ksenia,2013 applied qualitative and quantitative research methods. Reference Arnheim, R. (1974). Art and visual perception: A psychology of the creative eye. Berkeley: University of California Berkowitz, M. (1987). Product shape as a design innovation strategy. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 4, 274-283. Berlyne, D. E. (1976). Psychological aesthetics. International Journal of Psychology, 11, 43–55. Birren, F. (1956). Selling color to people. New York: University Books. Bitner, M. J. (1992). Servicescapes: the impact of physical surroundings on customers and employees. Journal of Marketing, 56, 57-71. Bloch, P.H. (1995). Seeking the ideal form: Product design and consumer response. Journal of Marketing, 59(3), 16-29. Coulson, N.S. (2000), “An application of the stages of change model to consumer use of food labels”, British Food Journal, Vol. 102 No. 9, pp. 661-8. Ferrell, O. G., (1987), “Marketing: Basic Concepts and Decision”, 5th edition, Houghton Mifflin Company, United States of American. Gaafar Mohamed Abdalkrim1, Ra’id Suleman AL-Hrezat, The Role of Packing in Consumer’s Perception of Product Quality at the Point of Purchase, European Journal of Business and Management ISSN 2222-1905 , Vol.5, No.4, 2013 Golnesa Ahmadi,Hamid Reza Bahrami, An Investigation of Visual Components of Packing on Food Consumer Behavior , Business and Economic Research ISSN 2162-4860 2013, Vol. 3, No. 2 Guthrie, G. & Wiener, M. (1966). Subliminal perception or perception of partial cue with pictorial stimuli. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 3(6), 619-628. Holmes, G.R. & Paswan, A. 2012. Consumer reaction to new package design. Journal of Product & Brand Management Emerald Article. Holbrock, M. B., & Zirlin, R. B. (1985). Artistic creation, artworks, and aesthetic appreciation. Advances in Non-Profit Marketing, 1, 1-45. Imram, N. (1999), “The role of visual cues in consumer perception and acceptance of a food product”, Nutrition and Food Science, Vol. 5, September/October, pp. 224-8. Lamb, Charles. W., Hair, Joseph. F., and Carl, Mcdaniel., (2004), “Marketing”, 7th edition, Thomson, south-western, Canada. Liza Becker,Can the design of food packing influence taste experience of its content? University of Twente ,May 2009 Lu, Liang., Gargallo, Susana., Munar, Maria., (2007), “Backaging As A Strategic Tool”, Master Thesis, Halmsted University. PP: 57–58. Mitchell, V.W. and Papavassiliou, V. (1999), “Marketing causes and implications of consumer confusion”, Journal of Product & Brand Management, Vol. 8 No. 4, pp. 319-39. Nussbaum, B. (1993). Hot products. Business Week, 7, 54-57. Panwar, J.S., (2004), “Beyond Consumer Marketing: Sectoral Marketing and Emerging Trends”, Tejeshwar singh for response books, typeset in 10 pt, New Delhi Pinya Silayoi,Mark Speece,The importance of packaging attributes: a conjoint analysis approach,European Journal of Marketing Vol. 41 No. 11/12, 2007 Prendergast, P.G. and Marr, N.E. (1997), “Generic products: who buys them and how do they perform relative to each other?”, European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 31 No. 2, pp. 94-109. Polyakova Ksenia,Packaging design as a Marketing tool and Desire to purchase ,Saimaa University of Applied Sciences,2013 Raghubir, P. and Krishna, A. (1999), “Vital dimensions in volume perception: can the eye fool the stomach?”, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 36 No. 3, pp. 313-26. Sarah Tornetta, Tess Fox, Jordan Blackbird, Color sells:How the psychology of color influences consumers, retrieved on Feb,15th,2015, Schoell, William. F., (1985), “Marketing: Contemporary Concepts and Practices”, 2th edition, Allyn and Bacon, United State of America. Smets, G.J.F., & Overbeeke, C.J. (1995). Expressing tastes in packings. Design Studies, 16, 349-365. Silayoi, P. and Speece, M. (2004), “Packing and purchase decisions: a focus group study on the impact of involvement level and time pressure”, British Food Journal, Vol. 106 No. 8, pp. 607-28. Silayoi, P. & Speece, M. 2007. The importance of packaging attributes: a conjoint analysis approach. European Journal of Marketing. Emerald Article. Solomon, M. R. (1983). The role of products as social stimuli: A symbolic interactionist perspective. Journal of Consumer Research, 10, 319-329. Stewart, B. 2004. Packaging Design Strategies. Second Edition. The UK: Pira International Ltd. Thomas Sioutis, Joachim Scholderer,EFFECTS OF PACKING DESIGN ON CONSUMER EXPECTATIONS OF FOOD PRODUCT HEALTHINESS , UNIVERSITY OF AARHUS AARHUS SCHOOL OF BUSINESS, 2011 Underwood, R.L., Klein, N.M. and Burke, R.R. (2001), “Packing communication: attentional effects of product imagery”, Journal of Product & Brand Management, Vol. 10 No. 7,pp. 403-22

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