Charles England France | History Dissertations

HIP 1: Charles VII- King of France

In this episode, the focus is on Charles VII, the King of France from 1422 till his death. He was born on February 22, 1403 as the fifth son to Charles VI. He was referred to as the well-served or the victorious.

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Prior to his ascendancy into the kingship, he was opposed by Henry VI of England who had ruling servants in parts of Paris. His success was questioned by the English. However, his crowning in 1429 was quite famous thanks to the wishes of John-of-Arc to set the French free from English occupation. Charles VII had to flee in May 1418 after a battalion of Duke of Burgindy (John) tried to capture Paris. He attempted a diplomatic reconciliation a year later to the Duke. This failed and he had to make a follow up on the bridge of Montreau. In the final meeting, his men set upon the unsuspecting duke and killed him. He is reported to have been oblivious of this. However, his involvement was later questioned. This furthered the mistrust between his family and the Duke’s. His adolescence was a mark of bravery. I led an army against the English but suffered humiliation when he once had to withdraw against Henry V. His parents were not pleased and lashed at me for being a failing heir to the throne. In the thick of this controversy, Charles fled to the Queen Yolande of the Four Kingdoms of Aragon to whose daughter, Marie, he got married. An important factor that led to his success was his support for the powerful and the wealthy family of his wife, Marie. His greatest love was his mistress. He was later crowned king after the battle at Patay on the 17th of July, 1429. He recaptured Paris and later all French territories, save for Port Calais.” Later, his reign saw a bitter struggle from his son, Louis, who became the owner of the throne as Louis VI. Although his kingship was overshadowed by the Martyrdom of his mother-in-law, Joan of Arc, he was largely credited for the success of the French Kingdom. Charles VII died on July, 22 1461.

HIP 2: Juan de Quevedo

Juan de Quevedo- Spanish-Franciscan- was born in Barcelona on 24th December, 1519. She was appointed bishop of Santa Maria at Antigua by Pope Leo X at the request of King Ferdinand becoming the first bishop on the mainland of America. I embarked at San Lucar with Padrarias Davila, then the governor of Darien. I soon found working with Pedrarias unbearable because of his acts of cruelty to Indians and rivals. The beheading of Vasco Nunez of Balboa who had discovered Pacific Ocean broke into a misunderstanding between the two of us. Charges were brought against me for violating understandings, accumulating wealth and a neglect on Indians. These accusations were never established and therefore I turned to seeking audience from Spain presenting two notifications to King Charles against Padrarias and for reducing powers of all the Governors of the New found World for better protection of the natives. These notifications were countersigned by Las Casas. The developments may have demoralized the bishop who soon fell sick and died at Barcelona. However Quevedo’s championship for the Native Americans, his involvement and views were adulterated by his insistence that the aborigines were men impossible to instruct or transform unless they were lumped in caucuses or missionary centers and continually supervised.

Works Cited

Hanawalt, Barbara. The Middle Ages: An Illustrated History. Taylor, Alinne, Isabel of Burgundy Module 2

Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo y Valdés

Gonzalo was born Fernández Oviedo in August 1478 in Madrid of a dignified Asturian decency and schooled in the backyard of Ferdinand, was a writer and a historian. By the age of thirteen, he was contact to their non heir son, Juan. He was in attendance at the siege at Granada, and there witnessed Christopher Columbus prior to his expedition to the North Americas. When Juan died in (October 1497, Oviedo left for Italy, and there he was escritoire to Fernandez de Cordoba. By 1514 he had been chosen supervisor of gold-smelting in Santo Domingo. When he returned to Spain in 1523, he became a historiographer of Indies. He went to America five more times before his death in 1557. Oviedo’s first writing was a romance in Chivalric entitled “Libro del muy esforzado e invencible caballero Don Claribalte” meaning “Book of the very striving and invincible knight Don Claribalt” published in Valencia in 1519. In the foreword, he relates conceiving the work while in Santo Domingo. This indicates that his first literary piece of work was formulated in the “New World”. Even though the work was in dispersed style, it contained curious information obtained first hand. The incomplete edition was widely published in English by Eden in 1555 and in French by Poleur in 1556 respectively. Las Casas described it as “containing almost as many lies as pages”. He put the most favorable construal on the dealings of his countrymen. Though, with a bias to his country, which was quite obvious, his narrative is both trustworthy and appealing. Through his book, first the Europeans and then the world, learnt about the tobacco, hammock, and the pineapple. This is because they were used by Native Indians that he met. He was placed to head the Fortaleza in the Santo Domingo. A large statue of him given to Dominicans by the Spanish King still stands there. In his other publications, he sets out to write gossips about eminent colleagues. These old-fashioned, moralizing anecdote collections were first produced in Madrid.

Works cited

Agustín G. de Amezúa. Introduction to the facsimile reprint of Libro de Claribalte by the Spanish Royal Academy, Madrid, 1956 Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition article “Gonzalo Oviedo Y Valdes”, During early 17th century colonization in North America the lifestyles of the Englishmen had varied enormously in the Northern region. The variation in New England and Southern or Northern lives were registered in their social lives, economic activities, as well as their systems of governance. Colonial societies in New England were formed on the basis of freedom in family and religion which were stable. New England immigrants came into N. America as families with a tag of longevity and conglomerating together. There were few diseases and thus populations surged.

Samuel de Champlain

Samuel Champlain, born on 25th December 1567 and who became known as the Father of New France was came from a protestant family in the Saintonge Province. He made a journey from the Port town of Brouage on the west coast of France, sojourned into Canada before meeting his death in 1635 in Quebec. A sailor, he also came to be respected as a talented navigator, a cartographer, and the founder of Quebec City. Champlain was instrumental in opening North America to trade with the French. This trade majored in fur. He would spend many years in managing and explorations in North America and then back to France to collect more funds through lobbying, publishing and reporting on his findings in the New world. These activities were instrumental for further explorations and subsequent colonization. Champlain was tolerant and his first name (Samwel) was an indication of belonging to a non catholic. The name was not usually given to Catholic children. On his first arrival, he created the St Lawrence River Map. He was then asked by Henry IV to make a comprehensive report on his discoveries. He joined other expeditions and helped found, the protestant settlement at the Saint Croix Island. He was forced to endure a harsh winter in the new settlement that necessitated the abandonment of the island come spring. He relocated the settlers to up at the Fundy coast of Nova Scotia in Port Royal where he set camp until 1607when he later decided to explore the Atlantic coast. Between 1605 and 1606, he explored a land, now Cape Cod but was met by skirmishes from resident. The Monomoyick Indians discouraged him from the idea that prompted him to name the place as Port Fortune. In the summer of 1609, he changed tact and tried better relations with the First Nations. He formed working alliances with the Wendat. (The French called them the Huron) and the Algonquin, the Montagnais and the Etchemin, who required Champlain to help them in their war with the Iroquois at the south. In this, he was able to map Lake Champlain. In the proceeding wars, Champlain killed some Iroquois who fled. This was the stage for the French- Iroquois relationship that spanned the next one hundred years. He returned to France shortly but was back with the Hurons. He went into war again with the Iroquois but due to premature attacks, they were defeated. He sustained injuries, healed up and decided to learn the country. He wondered into hunting and got lost. He bumped into a bunch of Indians by chanced. He spent a couple of months learning their ways and customs and manners. He was however back in Quebec in 1616, came back to New France in 1620 but as an administrator for the rest of his life. He died of stroke in 1635 leaving no heirs.

Works cited

Dalton, Roy. The Jesuit Estates Question 1760-88, p. 60. University of Toronto Press, 1968. Morris, Bishop. Samuel de Champlain: The Life of Fortitude (New York: Knopf, 1948), 6-7. Samuel Eliot Morison, Samuel de Champlain: Father of New France (Little Brown, 1972) Champlain: the Birth of French America. ed. McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2004. Biography at the Dictionary of Canadian Biography Module 4 FOCUS: African, Euro-American and Native American cultures in North America had intermingled for about two centuries by the 1700s and their experience with one another wrought significant changes to their ideas and practice of political power and economic endeavor. As you discuss your bio profile for this historical period, concentrate on their opinion/contribution to this concept of innovation and adaptation to a uniquely “American” colonial partnership and interaction (whether they realized it was different or “just the way of things”). Questions to consider in your post: How did the people of this period deal with issues of political authority and power? Who had it, who wanted it and who was arguing over it and why? What role did this person play in the colonial mercantilist policy and earning a living/survival? How were they affected by mercantile policy (or not) and what impact did this have for their own experience as well as the success or failure of their community (the latter will vary depending on which HIP group you are in) For this period, your person has to be confined to 1700-1799, preferably before the 1780s (that’s the 18th century), and realistically a person who contributions/perspective would fit in terms of the questions posed. By this time, the person needs to be living in North America, by birth, naturalization or work status, but cannot be someone overseas commenting on the American situation.

John Adams

John Adams Jr. was born in 29th October 1735 to John Boylston and Susan Boylston in Braintree, Massachusetts. He was the eldest of Boylston Adams’ sons. His father is a descendant immigrant from Barton, St David in Somerset England. His mother descended from the Boylstons of Brookline. He was born to a humble family, but he felt the need to live according to the heritage of his family as the founders of Puritans who immigrated into America in 1630and thereafter established a colonial type of presence in America By the time of his birth, the Puritan dogma no longer swayed people, and most of their heritage melted away. John, however “considered them bearers of freedom, a cause that still had a holy urgency.” This was a value system he held so dear and was not about to leave. He went to Harvard College at the age of sixteen. His father had high expectations of him being a minister but he doubted himself. After graduation, he taught shortly in Worcester after which he decided to become a lawyer. He studied in a prominent lawyer, James Putnam’s office. He developed a guise for writing descriptions of events and impressions of people which are scattered in his memoirs. This assisted him as a lawyer. For example, the Otis’s argument, one of his reported cases, inspired him zealously for the American colonies. Adams married Abigail Smith in 1764. Abigael was the daughter of Minister, Reverend William Smith of Weymouth. One of their children was the future president John Quincy. His influence was derived from his work as a lawyer and was dedicated to republicanism that then embraced the mercantile policy. He found his contentiousness to constrain him politically. He authored the “Declaration of Independence” in 1776. He was one of the most influential founding fathers. He became the first Vice President and second President of the United States and was first to have lived in white house after its completion in 1800. He sponsored the American Revolution (Massachusetts). Adams represented the congress in Europe and became a good negotiator of the peace treaty with the former colony, Great Britain. His advocacy for money market in Amsterdam became a driving innovation tat necessitated the success of the revolution. He founded an accomplished lineage of diplomats, politicians and historians. He became prominent as a crusader against the Stamp Act in 1765. From this time on Americans gathered for deliberations on governance documents writing of the constitution. The Massachusetts new constitution of 1780 was largely his brainchild and structured largely his views on politics and society. Debate and experiential pressures abandoned the classical conception in politics that equated the government to a mirror of social entity. The new concept was the popular sovereignty that was synonymous to people power. Adams did not engage in slave trade and decided to employ slaves for their labor. He spoke against it and struggled to entrench in bills, their emancipation. In his presidency, he stressed the embracement of civic virtue and was free from scandals. His presidency was marked with intense debates o foreign policy. The republicans favored the British while the Democrats favored the France in the British-French war. During his tenure as president, the Neutralization Act, the Alien Act, The Alien Enemies Act and the Sedition Act were passed in response to his foreign policy that were meant to suppress the republican opposition John Adams remains the longest-lived person ever elected to both of the highest offices in the United States. He was raised as a Congregationalist. He later became a Unitarian. He also embraced deism and had beliefs in the fundamental goodness of creation but not in the divinity of Jesus Christ or in the belief that God intervened in individual lives. He advocated the separation between the church and the state. He strove for a kind of religion based on common intuition and reason. He was against, in his opinion, the claim of supremacy by the Catholic Church.

Works cited

Adams, John, Diary and Autobiography of John Adams,L.H. Butterfield, Editor.(Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1961.) Brown, Ralph A. The Presidency of John Adams, 1988 Adams, C.F. The Works of John Adams, with Life (10 vols. Boston, 1850–1856)

Oliver Ellsworth

Oliver Ellsworth was born on 29th 1745 in Windsor to Captain David Ellsworth and Jemima Leavitt Ellsworth. He enrolled at Yale in 1762 but later transferred to Princeton during his second year. He studied theology and got his degree in two years time. Ellsworth, however, turned to law. He got admitted to the bar in 1771 and became very successful in law. By 1773, Ellsworth had married Abigail Wolcott. She was the daughter of Abigail and William Wolcott. They had a total of nine children. Oliver became a revolutionist against British rule. He helped draft the United States Constitution. He was later to be a Chief Justice of the United States. One of his notable contributions to federal legislation was the motion of 1787 made by which moved that the government be called a “National Government”. Ellsworth opposed this successfully to retain the name the “United States Government”, as it had been since the Declaration of Independence in 1776. In 1777, Oliver became Hartford County’s Connecticut’s state attorney. He was also chosen the as a representative at the Continental Congress. He was very active during the Revolution and served as committee member at the Pay table. He joined the Appelas committee, the forerunner for the Federal Supreme Court. During this service, one of the notable cases was that of Olmstead that brought conflict between state and federal authority. He worked in the constitutional Convention in Philadelphia along with William Samwel Johnson Roger Sherman having participated in the barring of judicial review and later in having implemented it in the Judiciary Act of 1789. During the proceedings, he proposed the use of “United States” to identify the nation in order to maintain sustain the weight on a joint federation as opposed to a single national entity. In the next three weeks, (30th May 1787) Edmund Randolph moved to form a “national government” encompassing supreme legislative arm , an executive arm and a judiciary arm of government which Ellsworth accepted . Ellsworth was for the Three Fifths Compromise on the enumeration of slaves. He defended slavery to be within state authority which was permitted by the Constitution. He served in the senate of federal government where his service was from 1789 to 1796. During this time the federal government was granted much authority that was rejected because its misuse could be used to rebuff the Constitution during State Ratifying Conventions. On ending the conventions, Ellsworth was able to render the sovereignty of the federal government justifiable, but through judicial evaluation instead of congressional appraisal. When the Judiciary Act was adopted, he sponsored the Senate’s reception and acceptance of the Bill of Rights advocated for in the House of Representatives. This combination of Judiciary Act and the Bill of Rights rendered the Constitution “toothy”, a situation that had not been contained in the Articles of Confederation. This guaranteed the sovereignty of the federal government whereas the Bill of Rights ensured the protection of both states and citizens from the misuse of this dominion by the federal government. These two acts thus counterbalanced each other. In his later life, Ellsworth became too generous to Napoleon. This provoked indignation from Americans. He got ill as a result of traveling across the Atlantic. His Federalist Party fell into disarray and was defeated by Republican Party. Ellsworth retired from public life in 1801. He was later to serve on the Connecticut Governor’s Council until his death Windsor. He died in 1807 and was buried in the cemetery of the First Church of Windsor.

Works cited

The Life of Oliver Ellsworth, William Garrott Brown, 1905–repr. by Da Capo Press, 1970. The Records of the Federal Convention of 1787, ed. by Max Farrand, 4 vols. Yale University Press, 1911, 1966. James Madison’s Notes of Debates in the Federal Convention of 1787, James Brown Scott, Oxford University Press, 1918.

James Madison, Jr

James Madison, one of the founding fathers of the US and the fourth president and also considered the father of the US constitution, was born on 16th march 1751 and was the eldest of James Madison Senior and Eleanor Rose Conway’s twelve children. He spent most of his childhood at the tobacco plantations of his father at Orange County in Virginia. He attended the Church of England which was the state religion of Virginia, then. Madison married Dolley Payne Todd September 1794, seventeen years younger who was attractive and vivacious. She is largely credited for inventing the First Lady as a political adviser to the president. They however, did not have children. He was the shortest and lightest president having been 5′ 4″ tall and about100 Lbs. he was the last of the founding fathers to die. In politics, his distinctive belief was that the new country needed checks and balances to regulate special interests or factions. He was a fighter against aristocracy and public corruption that were the hallmark of republicanism. He worked with President George Washington during his congress stint to promote federalism in government. He opposed the Aliens and Seditions Acts. As president, he led the War in1812 against Great Britain to protect the US economic rights. This was marred by defeats but that ended on a high note with the signing of the Treaty of Ghent. This was followed by the new spirit of nationalism which swept the country. During this time, he reversed many of his decisions and ended up supporting second National Bank, strong army and high tariffs to protect factories established during the war. He advocated a new constitution to overcome divisiveness in the country. His three-branch system of federal governance is the basis of the constitution today. Madison was shy but most outspoken members of the Congress. He looked forward to a strong federal system of governance with powers to overrule actions of the states deemed mistaken. This he found fulfilling in the role of the Supreme Court in championing this course. As the Federalist Party collapsed, the Era of Good Feeling emerged with lower levels of political fear. Political contention however continued. Madison left the presidency a poorer man than when he entered, due to the steady financial collapse of his plantation.

Works Cited

Brant, Irving. James Madison, 6 vols. Bobbs-Merrill, 1941–1961. Ketcham, Ralph. James Madison: A Biography. Macmillan, 1971. Rakove, Jack N., ed. James Madison, Writings, Library of America, 1999 James Madison, Notes of Debates in the Federal Convention of 1787 Reported by James Madison (W.W. Norton, 1987 James M. Smith, ed. The Republic of Letters: The Correspondence between Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, 1776–1826. 3 vols.W.W. Norton,1995.

Walter Forward

Walter Forward was born in January 24th, 1786. He was a lawyer and a politician. He attended the common schools after moving with his father to Aurora. He studied law and was in the bar by 1806. He was elected into the congress in 1822 and later reelected in the 18th congress and to the 19th congress. In March 1841, he was appointed by President William Harrison to be the first comptroller of the Treasury. He served here till September 1841. The Independent Treasury System of 1840 repealed the position of 13th Secretary of the Treasury. Funds were deposited once more with commercial banks. Forward took office and was asked by Millard Fillmore, the chairman of the committee of House Ways and Means to work out a plan to amplify the tariff as a response to the decrease in revenue as a result of the Panic during 1837. This includes development of a plan for a Board of Exchequer to help in disbursement of disburses customs revenue. A protective tariff was passed. Due to constant friction with the president, he was forced to leave the cabinet in February 1843. Walter embraced the economics and democracy of the Jacksonian democracy with philosophies as expanded suffrage where voting rights were more important and were expanded throughout the country; the manifest destiny, patronage or the spoils system, favored federal governance and most importantly, the laissez faire economics. This was a hands-off approach that was strongly advocated by William Leggett in New York City. The argument was that the government’s control in economic activities was likely to favor groups with special privileges which were unfavorable to the common man. Between 1819 and 1837 the nation experienced a great acceleration in economic growth. It was a great westward expansion, enhanced mechanization in production and both modern domestic and international markets. There was a shift to nonagricultural economy where there was reduction in agricultural activities. There was territorial specialization overall increased productivity. Eastern capital investment improved as a result of western industrial expansion. The economies grew up as a deliberate political act focusing on forming larger markets and continued growth of the economy of the early republic. Forward’s stewardship at the helm of treasury speeded up this Jacksonian economy.

Works cited

Schob, David E.; Hired Hands and Ploughboys: Farm Labor in the Midwest 1815-1860, University of Illinois Press, 1975. Sharp, James R.; The Jacksonians Versus the Bank, Columbia University Press, 1970. Taylor, George R.; The Transportation Revolution 1815-1860, Harper Torchbook, 1951.

Stephen Arnold Douglas

Born in Brandon, Stephen Douglas came to Illinois in 1833, as a teacher. He studied law before settling in Jacksonville. He is on record to have told his relatives, “I have become a Western man, have embraced Western feelings principles and interests and have selected Illinois as the favorite place of my adoption.” His nickname “Little Giant” was because he was short but good in politics. He was a capable party leader. He was skillful in debate and legislation. When President James Buchanan tried attempted to pass a Federal slave code against the wishes of the people of Kansas, he was instrumental in its defeat describing it as undemocratic. He was deeply religious and loved higher education. He founded the Chicago Baptist Seminary. Douglas defended the doctrine enhancing popular sovereignty to promote democracy and remove slavery from politics. He disagreed with Abraham Lincoln on this topic on legal, moral and economic arguments on slavery. He did not think of slaveholding as witty but as a barrier to free society. Douglas died at Chicago as a result of typhoid on 3rd June 1861 and was buried on the Shore of Michigan Lake.

Works Cited

Capers, Gerald M. Stephen A. Douglas: Defender of the Union.1959 Clinton, Anita Watkins. “Stephen Arnold Douglas – His Mississippi Experience” Journal of Mississippi History 1988 50(2): 56-88. Stevenson, James A. “Lincoln vs. Douglas over the Republican Ideal” American Studies 1994 35(1): 63-89 Zarefsky, David. Lincoln, Douglas, and Slavery: in the Crucible of Public Debate U. of Chicago Press, 1990. 309 pp Module 10

Henry Clay, Sr.

Henry Clay born on 12th April 1777 was the seventh of nine children. His father Baptist minister, was Rev. John Clay (also called Sir John) died four years into his birth. He left Henry, his brothers, two slaves for each and his wife eighteen slaves and 464acres. Son, his mother married Captain Henry Watkins with whom he bore another nine children. Clay had his elementary education from Peter Deacon who was a British teacher. He was hired as a shop attendant in Richmond. He was raised by a boy’s club but later got secured an employment by his step father in the Court of Chancery’s office. Here, he displayed great understanding of law was a secretary to George Wythe where he was forwarded by the chancellor to the Virginia attorney generals office where he received formal education and was admitted to the bar n 1797. He established court oratory where he received payments of horses and land from his practice where he owned numerous ots and the Kentucky Hotel. Clay married Lucretia Hart and with her, had eleven children. In 1811, he was elected United States House of Representatives and chosen as house speaker breaking a record. He was elected five more times into the same post. He helped establish the American Colonization Society that championed the sending of freed slaves to Africa where Liberia and Monrovia were founded. A dispute erupted In 1820 over the expansion of slavery in Missouri.. Clay helped in settling this dispute. He gained approval from the Congress for the Missouri Compromise. This saw Missouri and Maine as slave state and Free State respectively. Clay was a leading American crusader for revolutions and independence movements in Latin America .Between 1821 and 1826 he asserted the recognition of all the new countries with the exception of Uruguay which was recognized later. Clay died in at the age of 75 in Washington D.C. He was buried at Lexington. His headstone reads, “I know no North – no South – no East – no West.”

Works Cited

Eaton, Clement. (1957). Henry Clay and the Art of American Politics. Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Company, 25. Adams, John Quincy; Adams, Charles Francis (1874). Memoirs of John Quincy Adams: Comprising Portions of His Diary from 1795 to 1848. J.B. Lippincott & Co., 501–505. Remini, Robert. Henry Clay: Statesman for the Union, 1991 Zarefsky, David. “Henry Clay and the Election of 1844: The Limits of Rhetoric of Compromise” Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 2003. 6(1): 79-96.

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