Birth Control: Controls the Human Population

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The United States population is growing and since there is not way to stop or temporarily stop the population growth, there are ways to prevent the unplanned pregnancies of the teenage world. Those preventions would be birth control. Birth Control is the act of preventing pregnancy.

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Getting pregnant at a young age is not what most people people want. About 46% of females and 22% of boys get involved in a pregnancy before the age of 15 and about 25% of females and 9% of boys get involved in a pregnancy after the age of 15. Since these females are getting pregnant, 30% of them are dropping out of school to take care of their child. So most of these women aren’t getting great education of because of pregnancy or parenthood. However, due to women dropping out of school to take care of their child, only 38% of teen mothers who have a child before they turn 18 have a high school diploma, and less than 2% earn a college degree by age 30. So although they are getting an education, only some actually go through with the education system. Almost 75% of teenage pregnancies are unplanned; however, it isn’t always the result of someone being irresponsible. Even if the two people that took action in this event took precautions, there are always a chance of a risk of that method of fertility control to not work or be used correctly.

Birth control (Fertility control) is the act of preventing pregnancy. It includes different methods of preventing pregnancies such as medications, procedures, devices, and behaviors. There are 4 different types of birth control. There are Hormonal methods, Barrier methods, Intrauterine Device methods, and Natural methods. Most of these methods are made for female use, although there are some for males, such as the condom. The first method is Hormonal methods. The Hormonal method works by mimicking the natural hormones (estrogen and progestin, or just progestin) in the female body. These hormones are used to prevent pregnancy from happening. These hormones prevent pregnancy by not allowing ovulation to occur, making the lining of the uterus thin, and creating thicker cervical mucus. These hormones do not allow ovulation to occur prevents pregnancy because without an egg, sperm can not fertilize. Making the lining of the uterus thin, it would be difficult for implantation to happen. Creating a thicker cervical mucus makes it difficult for the sperm to enter the uterus. Hormonal methods include combined hormones, progestin only, and continuous extended use of combined hormonal contraceptives. Combined hormones use two hormones (estrogen and progestin) to prevent pregnancy from occurring Combined hormones come in three different ways; a pill, a patch, and a nuvaring. Each way contains a small dose of progestin and estrogen.The progestin-only method only contains the progestin hormone. This method comes in an injection and as a pill. Depo-provera is a long lasting version of birth control using ion the progestin hormone. It is given by injection every 12 weeks. The Depo-Provera works by stopping ovulation, making the mucous of the cervix thick (which make it harder for the sperm to get through into the uterus), and by thinning the lining of the uterus (which makes it difficult for a fertilized egg to implant). The progestin-only pill differs from combined oral contraceptives because it only contains one hormone, progesterone. The progestin-only pill works by thickening the cervical mucus, decrease ovulation or fertilization, and change the lining of the fallopian tubes and uterus. The Hormone method is effective about 96% effective.

The Barrier method works to prevent the sperm from reaching the egg. There are about 5 different versions of the Barrier method of birth control. The methods are either physical or chemical. The 5 different versions come in condoms, spermicides, diaphragm, cervical cap, and sterilization. Condoms can be external or internal. The external condom are for men to use. The condom catches and holds ejactulated semen so that sperm cannot enter the uterus and cause a pregnancy. The external condom is 92% effective. The internal condom are for females. The internal condom works by preventing the sperm from meeting the egg and acts like a barrier for protecting against sexually transmitted infections. The internal condom is effective about 87%. Spermicides contain a sperm killing chemical and work to create a chemical block at the entrance to the uterus. Spermicides come in a gel, foam, VCF, and Sponge form. All of these forms contain the sperm-killing chemical. Spermicide alone is about 78% effective, but when used with a condom or other barrier methods it can be as effective as 95% or greater. The diaphragm acts as a barrier between the opening of the cervix and semen which contains sperm. The diaphragm may not fit tight, so it is paired with spermicide to kill the sperm. The diaphragm is about 89% effective, but only when used with spermicide. The cervical cap is used to cover the cervix. It creates a barrier between the sperm and egg and it is held in place by suction so sperm cannot enter the uterus. The cervical cap is also used with spermicide. For women that have not had children the effectiveness is about 88%, for women who have had previous children the effectiveness is about 71%. Sterilization can be done for both men and women. Sterilization for men is called a vasectomy and for women it is called a tubal ligation. For men the tubes leading from the scrotum that join with the urethra are cut. For women, the tubes leading from the ovaries to the uterus are cut. Sterilization, for both men and women, is 99% effective. All barrier methods work to prevent the sperm from getting to the egg, the effectiveness of barrier methods altogether is 87%.

The intrauterine device (IUD) is a small t-shaped device that is put into a person’s uterus. Progesterone IUDs have a small amount of progestin. It of over 99% effective. Copper IUDs contain no hormones. It if over 99% effective.

Other than the Hormonal, Barrier, and IUD methods, there are natural methods. These methods do not use hormones or any physical or chemical objects to prevent pregnancy. The 4 natural methods are abstinence, fertility awareness, lactational amenorrhea, and withdrawal. Abstinence means to have no sexual contact of any kind. In the terms of birth control, it means not allowing sperm near the woman’s body below the waist. Abstinence is 100% effective in preventing pregnancy and STIs. Fertility awareness is a way to predict fertile and infertile times in a woman’s cycle. It is based on body signs, which change in each menstrual cycle in response to the hormones that cause ovulation. Fertility awareness is about 85-90% effective if used correctly. Lactational amenorrhea is a method that relies on breastfeeding. The hormones that produce breast milk will also work to stop ovaries from releasing an egg for the first six months after the baby is born. Lactational amenorrhea is between 98-99% effective. Withdrawal is when the man removes his penis from the vagina before he ejactualates. Withdrawal is 73%-96% effective if used properly. The natural method is about 93% effective.

All of these methods are ways to prevent pregnancy. Most of these birth control methods are specifically for females, but technology is improving and scientists are creating methods of birth control or males. The methods include a daily gel that stops sperm production is the furthest along in development, a male birth control pill, and a non surgical vasectomy (VOS.com). These three types of birth control for men are not going to be in pharmacies anytime soon, but the trials and making for these products are in production. Although, these products are in the making some men are happy to use a male contraceptive, and others are to afraid to go through with the symptoms if these methods.

Although the teenage birth rate has increased over the years, it is still a current thing. If teens were more informed about the consequences of teenage pregnancy and about birth control, then maybe they would be more reluctant to use it and to make sure that it is being used correctly. There are many types of birth control out there, but some are better than others and those ones that are better should be taught better than the others to the teens. Once again, it is not always the fault of the two people that are having intercourse, it can be an accidental situation where they need to understand that being safe and more informed about birth control can better their lives.

References

N. (n.d.). Birth Control Options | 20 Ways To Prevent Pregnancy. Retrieved December 05, 2018, from https://www.birthcontrol.com/

Belluz, J. (2018, August 06). There’s a reason why we don’t have “”the pill”” for men. Retrieved December 05, 2018, from https://www.vox.com/2018/4/4/17170262/male-birth-control-explained

Parenthood, P. (n.d.). Birth Control Methods & Options | Types of Birth Control. Retrieved December 05, 2018, from https://www.plannedparenthood.org/learn/birth-control

Gilbert, K. (n.d.). Birth Control Options. Retrieved from https://www.optionsforsexualhealth.org/birth-control-pregnancy/birth-control-options

11 Facts About Teen Pregnancy. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.dosomething.org/us/facts/11-facts-about-teen-pregnancy

Anjur-Dietrich, S. (2018, December 01). Teen Pregnancy. Retrieved December 07, 2018, from https://www.guttmacher.org/united-states/teens/teen-pregnancy

N. (2017, September 06). Teen Pregnancy Issues and Challenges. Retrieved December 07, 2018, from https://americanpregnancy.org/unplanned-pregnancy/teen-pregnancy-issues-challenges/

Teenage Pregnancy | Teen Pregnancy. (2018, November 02). Retrieved December 07, 2018, from https://medlineplus.gov/teenagepregnancy.html

Brady, K. (2017, May 25). 13 Facts About Teen Pregnancy That Will Blow Your Mind. Retrieved December 09, 2018, from https://www.teenvogue.com/story/teen-pregnancy-prevention-facts

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