Basic Concept of Textile

INTRODUCTION TO WEAVING & KNITTING YARN Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery and rope-making. TYPES OF YARN • Spun yarn is made by twisting or otherwise bonding staple fibre together to make a cohesive(solid) thread. Twisting fibres into yarn in the process called spinning • Filament yarn consists of filament fibres (very long continuous fibres) either twisted together or only grouped together. Texturized yarns are made by a process of air texturizing, which combines multiple filament yarns into a yarn with some of the characteristics of spun yarns. WEAVING Weaving is the textile art in which two distinct sets of yarns or threads, called the warp and the filling or weft (older woof), are interlaced with each other to form a fabric or cloth. The warp threads run lengthways of the piece of cloth, and the weft runs across from side to side. TYPES OF WEAVE The manner in which the warp and filling threads interlace with each other is known as the weave.

Different types of weaves are as follows: • Plain weave • Satin weave & • Twill Weaving involves the interlacing of two sets of threads at right angles to each other: the warp and the weft. PLAIN WEAVE plain weave also called tabby weave or taffeta weave is strong and hardwearing, used for fashion and furnishing fabrics. In plain weave, the warp and weft form a simple criss-cross pattern. Each weft thread crosses the warp threads by going over one, then under the next, and so on. The next weft thread goes under the warp threads that its neighbour went over, and vice versa. Structure of plain-woven fabric

TYPES OF PLAIN WEAVE • Balanced plain weaves are fabrics in which the warp and weft are made of threads of the same weight (size) and the same number of ends per inch as picks per inch. • Basket weave is a variation of plain weave in which two or more threads are bundled and then woven as one in the warp or weft, or both. A balanced plain weave can be identified by its checkerboard-like appearance. It is also known as one-up-one-down weave or over and under pattern. SATIN WEAVE satin weave is one of the three important textile weaves. The satin weave is distinguished by its lustrous, or ‘silky’, appearance.

Satin describes the way the threads are combined, and the yarn used may be silk or polyester, among others, giving different fabrics. The satin weave is characterized by four or more cool fill or weft yarns floating over a warp yarn or vice versa, four warp yarns floating over a single weft yarn. TWILL WEAVE A twill weave can easily be identified by its diagonal lines. It is made by passing the weft thread over one or more warp threads and then under two or more warp threads and so on, with a “step” or offset between rows to create the characteristic diagonal pattern. Because of this structure, twills generally drape well.

Structure of a 2/2 twill Structure of a 3/1 twill WEAVING PROCESS • Weaving involves the interlacing of two sets of threads at right angles to each other: the warp and the weft. • The warp threads are moved up or down by the harnesses creating a space called the shed. The weft thread is wound onto spools called bobbins. By spacing the warp more closely, it can completely cover the weft that binds it, giving a warp faced textile such as rep weave. Conversely, if the warp is spread out, the weft can slide down and completely cover the warp, giving a weft faced textile, such as a tapestry. • An Indian weaver preparing his warp REP WEAVE By spacing the warp more closely, it can completely cover the weft that binds it, giving a warp faced textile. TAPESTRY Tapestry is a form of textile art and is composed of two sets of interlaced threads in such a way that the warp threads are set up under tension on a loom, and the weft thread is passed back and forth across part or all of the warps. Tapestry is weft-faced weaving, in which all the warp threads are hidden in the completed work, unlike cloth weaving where both the warp and the weft threads may be visible. KNITTING

Knitting is a method by which thread or yarn may be turned into cloth or other fine crafts. Knitting consists of consecutive loops, called stitches. As each row progresses, a new loop is pulled through an existing loop. The active stitches are held on a needle until another loop can be passed through them. This process eventually results in a final product, often a garment. Knitting may be done by hand or by machine. By hand, numerous styles and methods of knitting exist. Different yarns and knitting needles may be used to achieve different end products by giving the final piece a different colour, texture, weight, or integrity.

Using needles of varying sharpness and thickness as well as different varieties of yarn adds to the effect. COURSES AND WALES The yarn in knitted fabrics follows a twisting path called a course, forming symmetric loops also called bights symmetrically above and below the mean path of the yarn. These twisting loops can be stretched easily in different directions, which give knitting much more elasticity than woven fabrics; depending on the yarn and knitting pattern, knitted garments can stretch as much as 500%.

A sequence of stitches in which each stitch is suspended from the next is called a wale. WEFT AND WARP KNITTING There are two major varieties of knitting: weft knitting and warp knitting. In the more common weft knitting, the wales are perpendicular to the course of the yarn. In warp knitting, the wales and courses run roughly parallel. In weft knitting, the entire fabric may be produced from a single yarn, by adding stitches to each wale in turn, moving across the fabric. In warp knitting, one yarn is required for every wale.

Since a typical piece of knitted fabric may have hundreds of wales, warp knitting is typically done by machine, whereas weft knitting is done by both hand and machine. Basic pattern of warp knitting. Parallel white, red and green yarns zigzag lengthwise along the fabric, each loop securing a loop of an adjacent strand from the previous row. Thus, the two central wales in this picture are alternating whitered-white and red-green-red stitches. TYPES OF KNITTING There are 3 types of knitting as mention below: • Circular knitting also called “knitting in the round“ Flat knitting & • Felting FLAT KNITTING VERSUS CIRCULAR KNITTING Circular Knitting Flat knitting • is a form of knitting that creates a seamless tube. Knitting is worked in rounds in a spiral. A circular needle resembles two short knitting needles connected by a cable between them. • Circular knitting is employed to create pieces that are circular or tube-shaped, such as hats, socks, mittens, and sleeves. • is used, in its most basic form, to make flat, rectangular pieces of cloth. It is done with two straight knitting needles and is worked in rows, horizontal lines of stitches. Flat knitting is usually used to knit flat pieces like scarves, blankets, afghans, and the backs and fronts of sweaters. FLAT KNITTING VERSUS CIRCULAR KNITTING Circular Knitting Flat Knitting KNITTING TOOLS Knitting needles in a variety of sizes (US 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13 and 15 from the bottom). The US size 7 and 15 needles are bamboo and wood, respectively, whereas the others are aluminium. Having a smoother surface, metal needles tend to produce faster knitting but stitches are more likely to slide off by accident. Double-pointed knitting needles, sometimes used for socks, collars and sleeves.

Typically they come in sets of four or five; shown here are US size 8 in wood (left), and US size 1 in aluminium (right). KNITTING TOOLS Three different circular knitting needles of different sizes and composition. The inner beige one is short and thick (US size 13) and made of wood, whose roughness prevents stitches from slipping off. The red metal middle one is US size 9, and its tips have been screwed onto the nylon cord. The outer one is US size 5, nickelplated hollow brass for speed and unusually long, designed for lace and larger sweaters.

CONCLUSION • Weaving is worked on a loom. It is comprised of a series of individual threads (called warp threads) that are kept vertically under tension by the loom. The weaver then places horizontal rows of “weft” threads through the warp to make the cloth. The warp and the weft are always perpendicular to each other. • Knitting is worked on a set of two pointed sticks (knitting needles). A single thread is worked in loops to make a row. Subsequent rows are built on the previous row to make the cloth, still using the same single thread. THANK YOU

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